CCCS Conference 2016 Book of Abstracts

CfP Reinvestigating


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Giovanni Ercolani, University of Murcia (Spain)

The (S)-state of Emergency and the Securitization of Culture: Shaping Conformism, Dehumanizing the “Other”, and Fabricating Cultural-Societal Conflicts


My presentation wants to meditate on the recent use of the term ’emergency’ in the political discourses which have been produced recently in the ‘NATO world’. My perception is that from a ‘state’ of emergency (as a temporal situation) the political elites, supported by neoliberal forces, are moving to impose a ‘State of Emergency’ on their own countries. The securitization process which has been activated by the emergency actions which were took by the political elites, due to the recent terrorist attacks in Paris (Nov 2015) and the raise of number of immigrate who are moving and reaching the border of NATO-Europe, is playing a ‘divide et impera’ strategy using the cultural card. This means that, for the maintenance of status quo power reason by power elites, first the definition of emergency and its management is transferred to a group of experts, that come from the neoliberal world; second the management of emergency is excluded from the democratic debate; and third in order to cement, to interpellate the political audience, and to fabricate that ‘blind trust’ that the political-neoliberal elites need for their power manoeuvres, the cultural card is the only one at their disposal to be played in order to provoke a psychological regression process and to conform the psychological-cultural response of the domestic audience. This politics is translated in enforcing and idealizing the image of the local culture, which is elevated to a moral and ethical position, while the culture of the ‘other’ (the migrate people, the diasporas elements, the terrorists) is depicted as immoral, incomprehensible, dangerous, and antiquate. Moreover, an element of anxiety and fear is attached to the culture of the ‘other’. Therefore, the ‘other’ becomes to be presented, showed, and illustrated as a ‘no human being’, a ‘homo sacer’, even not a body with its human need and its necessity to survive. The raise of extreme right political parties in the territory of NATO-Europe, sustains this point. At the end, the management of the emergency represents a fantastic opportunity for the neoliberal elites not elected to replace the political class which has been democratic elected. And the fabrication of a political agenda based on the manipulation of socio-cultural conflicts can only distort the gaze of the political audience from this political-neoliberal coup.

Keywords: emergency, securitization, culture, power, neoliberalism, conformism, dehumanization, societal, conflict.

Savandie Abeyratna, Liverpool Hope University

Structural and Cultural Violence, Development Dislocations and Forced Migration: The Case of Sri Lankan Migrant Domestic Workers


Since the 1980’s, there has been an exodus of Sri Lankan women, travelling to countries in the Middle East for employment in a sector that is devalued, deskilled and classed as ‘dirty work’ (Anderson, 2000). These Sri Lankan Migrant Domestic Workers are invisible, vulnerable and devalued in their receiving States. The abuse (physical and mental), exploitation and subordination of these women has been widely publicised and reported in all forms of media. Yet, Sri Lanka remains one of the top suppliers of Domestic Workers to countries in the Middle East region. In order to explain this phenomenon, the invisibility, devaluation and vulnerability of these migrant women is classed as Structural violence influenced by Cultural violence. Galtung (1969) who introduced the concepts commented on the relative ‘invincibility’ of structural violence. In this paper a backtracking along the post-colonial social and economic history of Sri Lanka is carried out to bring this structural and cultural violence into light. Within this narrative, a persistent conflict between a politico-religious ideology (Sinhala Buddhist Nationalism) and an economic policy (Neo-Colonialism) taking place on the backs of women (Sassen, 2000.2012) is highlighted. This talk aims to show how political and economic processes, largely put into place by the Sri Lankan state in tandem with the immigration policies of receiving countries, renders these women vulnerable to forms of violence. A special focus is laid on State developmental policies which are seen to give rise to development displacements which can be considered a form of forced migration as a result of structural and cultural violence.

Keywords: Structural Violence, Cultural Violence, Development Dislocations, Forced Migration, Migrant Domestic Workers

Bülent Sarper Ağir; Murat Necip Arman; Gönül Tezcan, Adnan Menderes University

The Evolution of Macedonia’s Migration Policy in the Process of European Union Integration: A Brief Institutional Evaluation


From the beginning of the 21st century, the European Union has become the main state-building actor in the war-torn Western Balkans. In fact, it was an institution-building process that the EU has promoted via its integration tools. Macedonia, by constituting and reforming its legal and institutional system, has proceeded a state and nation building process since the signing of the Ohrid Framework Agreement that ended the 2001 ethnic conflict between the ethnic Macedonians and ethnic Albanians. The European Union’s declaration of Macedonia as a candidate country in 2005 has strengthened the EU engagement in the country, and the EU has appeared as the primary international actor that gives support to the Macedonian state in the process of state-building. This study aims to evaluate the Macedonia’s institutional alignment with the acquis with respect to migration policy. By analysing the institutional arrangements the country has made in the process of EU integration, the study will try to assess briefly whether Macedonia has increased its administrative capacity in migration policy.

Keywords: Macedonia, EU, integration, migration, institution-building

Byeongsun Ahn, Department of Sociology, University of Vienna

Identity Work of ‘Here-and-there’: Meaning of Locality in Construction of Diasporic Identity and Inter-diasporic relationship among Serbian Migrants in Vienna


This paper demonstrates the meaning of locality in construction of diasporic identity among Serbian migrants in Vienna. While the dominant lens in previous researches on diasporic identity of Serbian migrants have been the ‘spillover’ of homeland politics in the host societies, aka long-distance nationalism, this paper sheds light on the concept of locality and illustrates how the location of their physical presence shapes their diasporic identity and, subsequently, their inter-diasporic relationship with other migrant communities. The concerns I raise in this paper against the approaches and conclusions in previous researches are twofold: first, the compatibility of ‘time-bound’ approach to the present-day Serbian-diasporic identity and, second, the influence of the politics in the host-land as a ‘channel for non-confrontation behaviour’ in inter-diasporic relationships. In how far does the troubled past of the 1990s still shape the diasporic identity and the inter-diasporic relationship of Serbian migrants today? In how far can macro-level activities between diasporic elites and ‘homeland’ institutions really help us to understand how a diasporic identity is negotiated at an individual level? By investigating Serbian community in a multi-ethnic neighborhood, Ottakring, in Vienna, this paper, therefore, illustrates whether the war-ridden past of their ancestral homeland still reflects the multi-connectedness of their identity ‘here-and-there’ and how the transnational social formation of the locality of this neighborhood affects their relationship with other migrant communities today.

Keywords: Diasporic Identity, Inter-Diasporic Conflict, Serbian Migrants, Locality, Transnationalism

Lori Amy, Georgia Southern University

Trajectories of Containment: A Case Study from Albania


This paper uses Albania as a starting point for thinking through the cold war – war on terror trajectory and the prison camp as a security measure that attempts to contain the threatening other. The four primary threads I connect are: • The legacy of Prison and labor camps in the communist dictatorship of Albania; • Albanian refugees and asylum seekers that fled the country en-masse after what we euphemistically call “transition”; • The intersection of contemporary figures of the refugee/ asylum seeker and the illegal immigrant; • The War on terror and the contemporary prison camp / detention center. Using Albania as a frame illuminates some of the absurdities of security measures in societies which are blatantly insecure and reveals the fundamental relationship of social, economic, and status needs to deployments of “security.” In particular, the human rights dimensions of security measures taken against war refugees fleeing Syria and other conflict ridden countries shows us how vulnerable populations in special need of safety are perceived as security risks. In this context, I examine the in/security measures of detention centers holding predominantly Muslim persons in Albania and the emergence off-shore and extra-territorial detention centers to trace the intertwining of threatened and threatening bodies in the age of the war on terror. My over-arching question is: how are we inhabiting this vulnerability -threat continuum of the cold-war / war-on-terror trajectory, and what are our possibilities for evolving social and economic relations beyond old citizen/state paradigms that affirm a politics of life?

Keywords: refugees, prison camps, terror, security, traumatic legacy, war

Georgia Angelidou, Univeristy of Granada

Unaccompanied foreign children. An important phenomenon in Spanish society.


Each year, millions of people are forced to abandon their homes because of their beliefs and political conflicts, the climate change, wars, economic globalization and more. (Spanish Commission for Refugee Aid, 2014). Among them, thousands of children, after leaving their countries, end up wandering unaccompanied in the Spanish territory (Lázaro & Morroy, 2010). The majority of them are coming to Spain from the African continent, 94% of which are male who do not speak Spanish and are undocumented. (Cabedo, 2010; Barranco & Duran, 2009 and Cear, 2009) As it is defined by UNICEF , the term Unaccompanied Foreign Children describes an individual, non-member of the European Union or a stateless, below 18, who enters the territory of a Member State of the European Union and is not accompanied by an adult. (Fuentes, 2014) Foreign children, who are in the European territory, have a number of fundamental rights, which are included in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (1989). Objective: The aim of this survey is to examine whether the kids enjoy or not, the rights, which are recognized to children by the international standards. Method: The workers of shelters for unaccompanied children in Granada (Spain) took on the processing of the research by using the quantitative method. Result: According to the Articles of the Spanish Constitution, unaccompanied children’s rights are respected at this shelter. Conclusions: The shelters offer to the children the opportunities to develop themselves and integrate in the community, respecting their own culture, religion and customs.

Keywords: Human rights, Migration, Integration, Rights of special groups, Smart Cities

Luka Antonina, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb

The Nation-State and “Bare Life”: The Migrant as By-Product of Capitalist Modernization and its Potential for Post-National Transcendence


In the historical moment in which the “provisional” contours of European nation-states are being outlined by kilometers of razor-wire, simultaneously are being outlined the contours of a not so provisional nature of contemporary European regimes. Only twenty-five years after the fall of the Iron Curtain, we witness the restoration of “the regime of wire”, not only in the south-eastern borders of the EU member states, therefore, on the borders of the Schengen zone, but on the seemingly ever-increasing spatial scale. Assuming that the so-called Schengen zone, albeit in a very cramped sense, represented a potential for transcending the symbolic and the real spatial distribution based on the in/ex-clusionary principle of national borders, insofar becomes clearer the neurosis of a modern nation-state due to the troublesome phenomenon of migrant. In the existing socio-historical context, the migrant can be understood both as a by-product of a prolonged historical process of capitalist modernization (perhaps finding its roots in the European colonial project), and as a postmodern (i.e. post-national) social phenomenon. In the latter sense, it is an epiphenomen of a transgressive socio-historical trajectory that finds itself in a rather troublesome collision with the on-going modern project of nation-state(s). Starting from the short socio-historical overview of utilization of the barbed-wire, this paper delves further in order to disclose the apparently universal disposition of the modernist in/ex-clusionary principle, of which wire perhaps is a powerful symbol, but only a functional element. This principle, as it is argued, is the underlying bio/thanato-political principle of two universally modern institutions: the nation-state and the labour market as two leading “sovereigns” over the “bare life”, thus reflecting the fundamental biopolitical rupture of contemporary social life.

Keywords: migrant, nation-state, labour market, biopolitics, modernism

Inés Aquilué Junyent; Javier Ruiz Sánchez; Milica Lekovic, Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Technical University of Madrid (UPM)

Differentiation, borders and displacements in the urban space of Sarajevo and Belgrade


Processes of spatial production and reconfiguration in the cities of former Yugoslavia are a tangible reflection of processes of social reorganization that followed the disintegration of the country into new states. Conflict-induced mass displacement lead to a social reorganization within a new territorial structure of borders, boundaries and frontiers. This social reorganization, based on ethnic, religious, historical, socio-anthropological, cultural and political differentiation, was carried out in parallel to the creation of spaces of exclusive identity. In other words, forced migrations became a tool for the differential exclusion. The application of hermeneutic analysis to aforementioned process identifies various phases in which urban form is altered due to transformation of social forms and allows to decipher a new urban reality behind territorial reconfiguration, here in the form of segregation caused by imposition both administrative and invisible borders. Sarajevo, a city where the processes of differentiation have resulted in partial spatial continuity but failed to include recognition, and Belgrade, former Yugoslav capital and current center of the Serbian identity, are emerging as genuine urban laboratories in which the sequence differentiation-conflict-trauma-recognition can be observed and verified, especially because the changes in the last two decades have broken linear dynamics on which more conventional urban processes are based. The analysis of unique processes of self-organization (autopoiesis) that have taken place in the period from 1995 to 2015 in Sarajevo and Belgrade leads to a set of conclusions about the nature of urban processes, in which operations of elemental differentiation produced structural transformations, inseparably intertwined with social reshaping.

Keywords: Displacement, spatial conflict, trauma, recognition, former Yugoslavia.

Vesna Pavlović; Veroljub Bojičić, independent researcher

The causes of Islamic terrorism


Are the terrorist attacks of Islamic extremists on the US and Europe from 11 September 2001 onwards exclusively the result of arrogant and irresponsible politics of the administration of US President George V. Bush, as well as politics of European governments that are, on the one hand, joined the US military adventures in the Near and Middle East, and, on the other hand, proved unable to integrate its own Muslim community? Although these causes have a significant specific weight, our opinion is that the roots of Islamic terrorism provide a much more distant past, in the era of colonialism, then the period of emancipation of former colonies, which ran with a lot of problems and obstacles caused by both internal contradictions and mixing former Christian empire. However, groups and organizations that have chosen terrorism as a form of combat against , basically, neo-colonial relationships are relatively few and mostly restricted to the Muslim world. Therefore, the aim of our work to investigate the causes of Islamic terrorism through deeper analysis of the social, economic and political specificities of Muslim countries, and discusses international political conditions that Central and West Asia, North Africa, and Europe and America exposed to violence at the beginning of the 21st century.

Keywords: islam, terrorism, Islamic society, empire, colonialism

Dragana Bubulj, University of Education Ludwigsburg, Germany

Identity negotiations among Serbs, as post-Yugoslav Diaspora community in Germany


Former Republic of Yugoslavia was a sort of protective umbrella, unique concept of gathering different ethnical, cultural, and religious identities, as well as diverse intersections of those. After states disintegration, along with processes of repositioning and redefining belonging, Yugoslav Diaspora communities in Germany experienced radical changes. Firstly on institutional and organizing level. In this regard, embassies and consular departments, native speaking schools (in Serbo-Croatian language), many of Yugoslav clubs and registered cultural associations in Germany – all of these have been reestablished on newly formed national grounds. Psycho-emotional involvement of Diaspora into the war is also not to be neglected. Civil war and secession harmed also the interethnic relations among Yugoslavs, what additionally affected mixed marriages and children from those. For Serbs, as post-Yugoslav state, path or repositioning mainly lead from being Yugoslav to Serbian affiliation and identification. On the other hand, western media image of Serbia in that time based on reporting about Serbian role in the war, Kosovo issue and NATO intervention in 1999 – potentially aggravated these processes among Diaspora youth of Serbian origin in Germany. This PhD research tackles biographies of academics of Serbian origin in one German land. During the major instabilities in their land(s) of origin, they have been in puberty or adolescence phase, which is period of most intense identity development.

Keywords: Serbs, Diaspora, Germany, Identity

Sandro Cattacin; Mary Leontsini, University of Geneva; University of Athens

Representations of home made terrorists in Europe and the USA as new forms of discrimination


Media coverage of major terrorist attacks in European cities since the beginning of the 2000s, (2004 Madrid, 2005 London, and 2015 Paris (twice) and Copenhagen) is addressing profiles of young European adults involved in terrorist attacks or engaged as foreign fighters in terrorist groups. Thus, (mainly Muslim) terrorist youngsters start becoming public figures, whose origins, family background, education, religious and cultural practices are described as components of their ‘terrorist becoming’, either in terms of causality or in terms of ‘unexpected outcomes’. In this work, through a (content) analysis of newspaper and (print) media coverage of terrorist attacks (in Europe and the US), we will try to shed light on the ways in which young terrorists are portrayed, emphasize the similarities among media of different countries and scrutinize the emerging discourse on second-generation youth. The apparent normality of the life course of these young people transforms all descendants of migrants in potential terrorists. In this way, their credibility as loyal citizens is being challenged and feelings of mistrust and fear are disseminated widely. We will show how issues of gender, age, family arrangements and educational choices may be interpreted in the scope of changing values through challenging experiences.

Keywords: Home made terrorists, discrimination, young adults, inclusion, exclusion

Yildiray Cevik, International Balkan University, Skopje

Migrations and Identity as Reflected in Saul Bellow’s Novels


The problem of identity is a common issue in migrations and dislocations. Migrants that suffer from the cleavage of identity are neither able to adjust into host country traditions, rules nor are willing to break apart from their original roots. Nor can they afford to be seen as isolated or rejected. Despite various programs for social, cultural and diasporic adjustments it is hardly possible to perceive success in endeavors. Jewish migrants from Western Europe try much to be Americanized for fear that they might experience long-lasting anxieties; yet, they can neither get identity transformations into American ways of life nor can forget their Jewish heritage. In other words, they become “dangling” between assimilation and compartmentalization along the lines of religion and culture within host countries. Hence, in this paper the novels of Saul Below, Dangling Man and The Adventures of Augie March are studied to reflect the binary, social, religious, economic and cultural differences paying the attention to the relationships between diaspora and homeland.

Key Words: identity, transformation, diaspora, migrant, culture, customs

Milena Dragicevic Sesic, University of Arts

Migrants and artists: cultural actions & artivism in Serbia


Since migrant crises, numerous artists and civil society groups in Serbia intervened within migrant routes, creating participatory actions aiming to raise migrant self-confidence, but also to raise interest and change negative stereotypes of transitory-hosting population about migrants. The research will take in account two groups of projects: a) artivism – artistic projects of individual artists and artistic collectives (Belgrade Raw, ŠKART, Tanja Ostojić, Vahida Ramujkić, etc. ) and b) civic cultural actions of numerous NGOs (from LiCEULICE that devotes whole issue in 2015 to those actions, Mixer house and Rex, till Center of Cultural Decontamination, etc.) The research question: to what extent migrants, facing survival issues, can accept proposals to rethink their own momentaneous position, and be equal partners in civic imagination or artivism projects? On the other side, to what extent public cultural institutions and civil society can quickly react and adapt their own programs to (often non-explicit) needs of migrant transitory population? The method of the research: exploration of 10 case studies, interviews with artists and activists, ethnographic analysis, discourse analysis and content analysis of media tools (wall papers and LICEULICE) created within artivism projects.

Keywords: Migrants, artivism, Serbia, participation, civic imagination

Elisabeth Klaus; Ricarda Drüeke, Department of Communication, University of Salzburg

Flight and Migration in Media Coverage and Artistic Production


In 2015, public debate on flight and migration in Austria was accompanied by images of asylum seekers in camps at the borders, at train stations, or walking down highways. Based on media coverage and artistic production related to the theme of flight, this talk aims to disclose how identity is constructed in these discourses. We understand contemporary art and media as cultural production providing the symbolic spaces in which identities are (re)produced, contested and modified. In addition to the media, artistic articulations deliver not only material for the emergence of interstitial spaces, but in addition, are often also sites of their development. In such spaces of in-between, trusted patterns of perception are unhinged by means of strategies for aesthetic staging. Methodologically, on the one hand we present the results of a content analysis of the media coverage of the theme of flight from July to September 2015 in the Austrian press, in which the the so-called “Balkan route” was a frequently discussed. On the other hand, the relationship of this coverage to artistic production is pondered. The findings show, that reports on asylum seekers focus on “unaccompanied men” with their presumably patriarchal, backward attitudes. In contrast, Austrian society is conceived as equality-based and modern. In this way, the media discourse on flight and migration demarcates geo-political spaces and makes identity-political determinations. In contrasting print reporting and contemporary artistic production, the talk discusses opportunities and limitations of media and art as spaces of identity formation.

Keywords: flight, cultural production, symbolic spaces, media, art

Shivonne Du Barry, University College Dublin

Becoming the Other: Restructuring Identity among White Brazilians in Ireland and White “Gaijin” in Japan


From a view of reality as socially constructed, the shift in social and cultural reality inherent in the process of migration would seem to necessitate a renegotiation of who one is in the world. Yet the intersection of migration and identity tends to focus on non-white migrants negotiating belonging and in-betweenity in a new place where they are “the other”. “Lifestyle migrants” who are often white, on the other hand, occupy a position of privilege in the migrant hierarchy and often in their receiving countries as well. Some migrations erode or transform the privileges of whiteness formerly available in the country of origin. Using questionnaires and extended interviews, this study will by the end of June transcribe and analyse the experiences of Brazilian migrants in Ireland and English speaking migrants in Japan who self-identify as white. The groups are similar in that they are unlikely to remain in the new country, though for different reasons. Both groups are also assigned a new identity by society, wherein their whiteness becomes secondary or even non-existent. The integration of or resistance to this new identity will be examined, as well as views on the racial hierarchy of the new and old countries in light of the new social identities. This study aims to shed light on a kind of “other” not often looked at, to reveal whether their perceptions of their experiences mirror that of other more conventional “minorities”.

Keywords: migration, whiteness, identity, Ireland, Japan

Ahmed Baran Dural; Bahriye Eseler, TR Trakya University

Adaptation Problem of Rumelian Immigrant Women to Turkish Politics


In many countries, women face so many problems on dealing with political matters. These problems can occur as a result of late participation to political crises. From past to present, women have not taken part in the power struggle, furthermore, they have been blended into background in election events especially in the III. World countries like Turkey. Duverger, on his study about women in politics is being concluded in two results. The first is “women’s participation tendency in the election” and the second one is “vote’s directions”. According to Duverger women participation tendency is less than men tendency. (Tekelli,1998: 87) Studies show that immigrant women have to struggle harder to take part in the migrated country. In Turkey for instance especially, women who immigrated from Rumelia to big cities such as Istanbul have to overcome though difficulties and barriers because of the political oligarchy in metropolis. As one participant from Rumelian immigrants states “We got a job in factory. Then they took us to Taksim for strike. On those days, syndicates were in everywhere. You could not refuse them. We sit a side in strikes. People warn us that did not meddle in politics.” In this paper, 17 immigrant women from Rumelia who had difficulty adopting to the political life of Turkey, are being reviewed. The women immigrants’ political struggle and their evaluations on Turkish political life will be discussed throughout the in-depth reviews made with the participants.

Keywords: Immigration, Rumelian immigrant women, politics, conflict resolution, political identity.

Enver Ethemer, Prsidency, Office of the President, North Cyprus

Two Lands


Cyprus is a geography where there is a constant and incessant travelling between past and present and future refers to ambiguity. Time has a special meaning for people who reside on this geography. Home, trauma, memory, misery, loss, grief are number of words of an exhaustive word-list illustrating psyche of Cypriots. All stories reverberates the past, hope, peace, old neighborhoods, old neighbors, past lives, present worries, disturbances, discontent. Cyprus is a land where past dominates the present, and past overshadows the future. Land of despair and dejection. Unhappiness prevails where time stops, re-starts, shuffles and re-defines. Unmasking the sorrows and damage of displacement. In a land where future is never vibrant, unblemished but captured by irreversible destruction of tragedies of people who have never found a way to express, scream out and reconcile. The aim of the research project is to examine how memory and trauma is manifested and collectively narrated in post-conflict geographies where displacement has occurred. Research will focus narrating past, place and memory comparatively in Cyprus through the eyes of the women which have mostly excluded in the post-war/post-division practice of recounting the memories of war, traumas, and personal accounts of displacement. The main focus of the research is to examine how people re-collect and re-account and travel between the past and present through framing trauma and post-conflict experiences with the aid of the memory. The main argument of the research would be based on articulation of the war, memory and trauma especially in those regions where post-conflict reconstruction and reconciliation has been narrowly defined with dominant state ideology based on militarist nationalist discourse. Project aims to use the oral stories, photos, voice recordings, videos to create multimedia piece which shows how women perceive their displacement and identity creation after they have been displaced in the North through mediated/masculine public spaces.

Keywords: War, Memeory, Conflict, Gender, Women, Collective Memory, Identity

Anne Graefe, European University Viadrina Frankfurt Oder

Dislocation, Disjuncture and Diaspora: The myth of Medea as aesthetic experience


What do the Medea mythos, the Hegelian dialectic and aesthetic experience have in common? Medea, the woman who was expelled, who migrated for love and murdered her children in order to reclaim herself, is known for her trauma of disjuncture: dislocated as a refugee in Corinth, far away of her own culture in Colchis, feeling the not-belonging to the one or the others, betrayed by her man for whom she betrayed her home and migrated to Iolcos. Since today the myth of Medea is used to raise issues related to migration, colonization, Diaspora and hegemony. Therefore, Medea represents at one the historical, present and postmodern subject of the migrant. Furthermore, a subject which becomes self-consciousness and regains her lost identity through the concept of the Hegelian phenomenology of the spirit: in recognizing, negating and nascent of an extended version of the self-consciousness. Through a close reading of Heiner Müller’s play Despoiled Shore Medeamaterial Landscapes with Argonauts this paper attempts to develop a way of reading the adapted myth of Medea as an act of self assertion. Through the use of the myth as a reading of migration and colonization Müller highlights what he thinks is the threshold from myth to history – when the marginal characters of western drama becoming its centre. In this way art eludes the experience of migration as an experience of successiveness – an experience of the philosophy of history. Art thus opens up a critical awareness for the economic, social and emotional repressions of historical and present colonization as cultural conflicts.

Keywords: migration, literature, Medea, Hegel, Heiner Müller

Natalia Grishina, Saint Petersburg state university

Ethnic identity and values system in different generations: Russians and Dagestans living in St. Petersburg (Russia)


Our research was devoted to the study of ethnic identity and psychological characteristics of different generations representatives, living surrounded by another ethnic environment. The participants of the study are 30 families, consisting of three generations and being in direct relationships, all 90 persons are the representatives of Dagestani diaspora living in St. Petersburg. The characteristics of ethnic identity, values system and indicators of psychological well-being were studied, we used an intergenerational analysis (inter-group comparison) as a main principle of research. The findings suggest that there are special characteristics and dynamics of ethnic identity from older generation to younger one. Also we used the comparison these data with the results of another research: the participants of this study were 30 families consisting of three generations and being in direct relationships, living in St. Petersburg, but all 90 persons are Russians. The comparison of two different ethnical groups (Russians and Dagestans living in St. Petersburg) showed the differences between them. The value system indicators in Russian families demonstrate changes from conservative and traditional values to novelty and challenge in life from older generation to younger one. The indicators of value system in Dagestan group have more traditional character and proximity in different generations. This result is connected with specific characteristics of ethnic identity in different generations, and, as the data show, with understanding of well-being.

Keywords: ethnic identity, values system, generations, diaspora, ethnic environment

Svetlana Gurieva, Saint Petersburg State University

Social-psychological features of Persoanal and Social Identification in Self-Image of Emigrants


This article covers issues related to the identification matrix of emigrants, the personal and social ethnic self-image. Our respondents were people living in the differnets regions of Russian Federation; Russian people living in high ethnic tension region (North Caucasian District, Vladikavkaz) and Ossetian people living in Saint Petersburg. The study used the following tools: a questionnaire, the authors’ modification of M.Kuhn and T.McPartland «Who am I?» and «Whom I don’t want to be». The data-processing included content analysis, and correlations. The results enabled us to create a classification of personal and social features of emigrants living in different districts that based on differences in Self-Image.

Keywords: personal, social, ethnic, identity, ethnic affiliation, ethnic group

Maseeh Haseeb, Queen’s University

Two Competing Discourses: Migration and Security


The theories of ideology and discourse are from distinct theoretical traditions within modern social theory. Social relations may be explored and unravelled by either theory. The discourse theory, however, has dominated modern social theory for decades and can be seen in Edward Said’s Orientalism (1978). His work will be employed in analyzing how Arab/Muslim refugees are indistinguishably constructed and perceived as a threat to peace and security in Europe. Inversely, Marx and Marxist philosopher Althusser’s work is immensely embedded in ideology. Refugees’ rights are impeded through the ideological practices and political objectives of border security in Europe. These objectives are carried out by what Althusser termed as Ideological and Repressive State Apparatuses that I argue channel certain representations and perceptions of Othered bodies that endanger refugees’ bodies through an Orientalising gaze. These ideologically driven representations of Arab/Muslim refugees are derived from the Orientalist discourse in the West. Indeed, there is a relation between security ideology and Orientalism in which refugees have been ostensibly situated as the threatening ‘Other’ thus showing that there has not been a rupture between ideology and discourse. Instead, both ideology and discourse function synergistically such that they work in relation to one another.

Keywords: Discourse, Ideology, Orientalism, Border security, Peace, Culture

Yuko Kawai, Rikkyo University, Department of Intercultural Communication

Changing Representations of the Japanese American Diaspora and the Shifting Meaning of Japaneseness


This study examines how Japanese nationalism has used the Japanese American diaspora to construct Japaneseness in popular cultural texts since the 1970s. As an ideology, nationalism defines what it means to be a member of a nation in relation to a variety of discursive Others. A diaspora can become a useful and unique discursive resource for nationalism “back home” because its ambiguous and ambivalent life away from the homeland makes them simultaneously the national Self and the Other. Seeking better economic opportunities, Japanese people began to migrate to the United States in the late 1880s. The most popular destinations were Hawai’i and later the west coast of the U.S. mainland where they often worked in agriculture, construction, and domestic service. Until the 1924 Immigration Act halted all Asian immigration to the United States, approximately 270,000 Japanese had journeyed there. After Brazil, the United States has the second largest population of people of Japanese descent today. In this study, by analyzing four Japanese TV drama series produced between the 1970s and the 2000s about Japanese Americans in the first half of the 20th century, the author discusses how representations of the Japanese American diaspora have transformed to give Japaneseness different meanings.

Keywords: diaspora, Japan, Japanese American, nationalism, TV dramas

Agata Kochaniewicz, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań

Managing economic migration in Poland – opportunities and barriers.


Migration management and new attitude to transnational mobilities is based mainly on maintaining free economy and labor market, with consent to circulation of labor and human capital. In the same time national institutions, who are resposible for migration, are controlling flow of people. One of the important postulates of migration policy in many European countries is the desire to use the human potential of foreigners. Since joining European Union in 2004, Poland became attractive country for economic migrants. Notwithstanding Poland has not yet implemented an effective policy in this regard, selectively allowing for integration of certain groups of economic migrants. For the rest there are existing barriers that are difficult to overcome. State through, inter alia, legal regulations is creating symbolic and structural distinctions, that consequently influence social relations between immigrants and native inhabitants. I would like to describe the situation of economical migrants coming to Poland, based on my research done in Migrant Info Point – free information and advisory centre for immigrants, where I’ve worked for three years.

Keywords: Poland, immigrant, migration policy, legal regulations

Péter Pál Kránitz, Doctoral School of History, Pázmány Péter Catholic University

Migrants or refugees? Defining forced migration in the 1920s


Migrants, refugees, immigrants, asylum seekers – terms that conquered everyday public discourse in the most recent times, and are strictly defined by international legal agreements and local jurisdictions in Europe. However, in the decade that followed the First World War there had not been a sophisticated legal system for distinguish migration from forced migration, migrants from refugees; nevertheless, millions of refugees – Greeks, Bulgarians, Turks, Hungarians, Armenians, Russians, etc. – were forced to flee their countries of origin and sought refuge in various European states. Member states of the League of Nations, for the first time in history, ventured upon defining refugees, immigrants and migration – and to some extent their rights – on international conferences and in the form of multilateral agreements. The refugee agreements of 1922, 1924, 1926 and 1928 defined refugees and their rights for the first time; while the international migration conferences in Rome (1924) and Havana (1928) defined immigration and suggested international standards for immigration law. These were the first steps towards international refugee and migration law, however, from a modern humanitarian point of view, on can not but detect some serious concerns. Refugee and migration agreements of the 1920s lacked the standards of universality and pragmatic principals, and were exclusive, inasmuch as they provided international protection for only stateless groups of two ethnicity, Russians and Armenians. The Assembly of the League repeatedly refused to include other groups of refugees; a universal definition for refugees was brought into being only by the New York Protocol of 1967.

Keywords: Refugee law, forced migration, League of Nations

Ingrid Løland, VID Specialized University, Norway

Religion and forced migration in the Syrian Conflict


Syria has for the past five years been entrenched in a devastating conflict that started as a national uprising and evolved into a scenario with serious transnational implications. Not only has the war produced the largest refugee crisis since WWII, it has also brought to the fore loyalties and linkages than run deeper than state borders. In this paper I question whether the conflict in Syria has caused a breakdown of national identity into religious and ethnic identities, and if so – how these identities have been shaped by conflict and negotiated among the forced refugee population. Religion has only recently been taken seriously in migration research. There appears, however, to be an indisputable link between religion and migration: when people are on the move, so is religion. It is operating across borders and negotiated across time and space. In the Syrian context, little research has highlighted the role that religion plays in the conflict and in which ways war and forced migratory experiences shape discourses on religious identification. In this paper I contend that conflict-induced displacement and forced migration represent a different type of category within the broader phenomenon of migration. This implies that religion and religious identification processes ought to be studied within a different kind of conceptual framework – one that is sensitive towards the changes and continuities within migrants’ contexts and one that mirrors the temporal dimensions of migratory experiences. Thus, time and space, trauma and resilience, boundaries and liminality, culture and memory, power and disempowerment are all important concepts informing the dynamism and complexity of relations between religion and forced migration.

Keywords: Religion, ethnicity, identities and identification, conflict, forced migration

Magdalena Marschütz, University of Salzburg / University Mozarteum Salzburg

Musical activities in present contexts of involuntary migration: Voices for Refugees


“The reality, for most of the past as once again for the present, is more about nomads than natives.” (Greenblatt 2010: 6). In his anthology Cultural Mobility: a manifesto Stephen Greenblatt gets to the heart of present migration. The assumption of a “cultural mobility” is also evident for musical activities as they always have been shaped by migratory processes and cultural exchange. Although the interrelationship between music and migration is anything but arbitrary, previous musicological research has often been based on concepts that take stability and fixity for granted. This paper examines musical activities in present contexts of forced migration with regard to their objectives, their integration of migrants, and their public reception. It attempts to discuss the effects these musical activities exert on the perception of refugees in German-speaking host countries. Do they contribute to a perception of recent migration as less of a challenge and more of an opportunity? As an example I will focus on the humanitarian concert Voices for Refugees that took place on 3rd of October 2015 on Vienna’s Heldenplatz and was broadcasted live on the Austrian channel PULS 4. Having analysed reviews, newspaper articles, television and radio reports as well as the only recently published book of Erich Fenninger, director of Volkshilfe Wien and initiator of Voices for Refugees, I will present the first results of my research.

Keywords: musical activities in migratory contexts, forced migration, humanitarian concerts, migration as opportunity, refugees and music

Päivi Miettunen, Center for Middle Eastern Studies

Construction of social identity and use of information among Middle Eastern immigrants in Sweden


Intra- and intergroup communication can be seen as processes of information seeking and sharing. I look at social identities as being constructed by individuals through information they receive and convey everyday with other individuals. People usually prefer information that does not contradict with their existing values and opinions. The group strives to maintain a positive image of self, often valuing themselves “higher” than the other groups. But not all information received is positive. When opinions of another group clash with the previous evaluations, an inter-group conflict is born. What is the effect when the new information contradicts or challenges previous knowledge, or when outsiders take over our values and identities, explaining and re-interpreting them to others – and even to us? In this paper I will discuss my field work, conducted among Middle Eastern immigrants in Sweden, looking at the point of interconnection where they come to meet the plurality of identities and information sources. I study the social identity and inter-group conflict through the lens of information behavior. Using the model of information source horizons, I will trace the processes of using and incorporating new information in the construction, interpretation and representation of social identities. Information itself is just data, but when put in context of previous knowledge and previous experience it becomes part of person’s knowledge and world view. This is also linked to the process of using and sharing the information, and thus connected closely to the social interaction and external activities of an individual.

Keywords: immigrants, Middle East, information behavior, intergroup relations, social identity

Angelina Milosavljevic-Ault, Faculty of Media and Communications, Belgrade

The Sacrifice for a (Political) Cause. Peter Greenaway’s and Saskia Boddeke’s “Obedience”, 2015


Peter Greenaway’s turn to Baroque transgression of limits of individual art forms has long been recognized. He, together with Saskia Boddeke employed Baroque stage and naturalism, and other Baroque features, such as loss of focus, intertextuality and intermedia, in their art project, exhibition titled “Obedience”, set at Jewish Museum in Berlin, from May 22 to November 15, 2015. In this exhibition, Greenaway and Boddeke set off from the Biblical story of Abraham and Isaac, as the ultimate story of sacrifice made to God, at whatever cost, in order to prove one’s love and obedience to His will – featured in all three major world’s monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. In this project, this story is understood as a human drama in which one is to chose between love of a father (love for the “neighbor”) or love of a worshipper of a higher (religious or political) instance. In this paper, I would like to present the narrative that brings into play, among many other, the concept of Agnus Dei, the ultimate sacrifice compared, to the end, to the position of children/migrants/sacrifices, using art objects and artifacts belonging to the three religions. It brings into play the present European and Middle Eastern conflicts and resulting migrations. In his films, Peter Greenaway dealt with the problem of one’s decision making as points of no return in one’s own life. However, the decisions at hand at this complex and dramatic exhibition are somewhat treated with points of no return for the mankind.

Keywords: Greenaway, Obedience, sacrifice, story of Abraham, migrants

Antonio M. Morone, Pavia University

Sub-Saharan Migrations to contemporary Libya: containment policies and migrants’ responses


During the last two decades, Libya has been at the central stage of the rising migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to the European borders. By representing Libya as country of transit more than as a country of destination, Muammar Qadhafi’s regime emphasized Libyan key role in controlling global South-North migration with the main purpose to use the notion of transit migration and the attached security issues as levers to obtain the lifting of international sanctions and then the Libyan readmission into the international community. In exchange the Qadhafi’s Libya became the main partner in the Mediterranean region of the Italian policy of externalization and securitization of European Union (EU) borders. The climax of such policy was reached in the years immediately following the signing of the Treaty of Friendship, Partnership and Cooperation between the Republic of Italy and the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya on 30 August 2008. In spite of the representation of Libya as country of transit, data shows that most migrants remained in the country and had no intention to reach Europe by risking the crossing of the Mediterranean Sea. The Sub-Saharan migrants in Libya thus became subjects of decision-making processes which allotted their outcomes on the basis of external pressures and international interests. The aftermath of the Libyan-Italian Treaty of 2008 was the strategy of driving back African migrants intercepted in the Mediterranean Sea towards the Libyan shore. The so-called ‘push-back’ policy erected an invisible, but insuperable wall in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea which historically was an area of intense and broad interaction between Europe and Africa. As a result in Libya there was an increase in exploitation, detention and deportation polices at the migrants’ expense. The present paper argues firstly that history is not a neutral background, but can influence present policies and relations. Not only the Italian-Libyan partnership on migration represented in fact a very consistent case of border externalization that provoked displacement and forced migration in itself, but it also revealed that the externalization was not a unilateral process and had its own African (in this specific case mostly Libyan) dimension: The uniqueness of colonial and post-colonial relations between Italy and Libya provided both parts with an important lever in order to bargain for their reciprocal interests. Secondly, the paper points out that, in spite of the framework change produced by the 2011 uprising and the following civil war, policies and practices related to the Sub-Saharan migrants in Libya remained in close continuity with the past. The conflict provoked a general and major deterioration of the Sub-Saharan migrants’ conditions of residency in Libya who were exposed to violence, imprisonment and killing. The peak of the civil war in 2011 and then from mid-2014 up to now coincided with two large migratory crisis and thousands of refugees who left the country. Furthermore, the Qadhafi’s fall indirectly provoked the collapse of the externalization and securitization system of EU borders. However, the new Libyan authorities and the Italian governments displayed a returning mutual interest in restoring the externalization and securitization policies to control the migrants’ influx, although the bargaining position of Italy was weakened in comparison with the Qadhafi era. Not only Italy and Libya worked on the control recovery of the EurAfrican borders, but they planned the further EurAfrican borders externalization Southwards and in doing so they tried to achieve an increasing EU involvement. The continuity was not only on the side of Libyan and Italian cooperation on migration, but also on the side of migrants who are still travelling to Libya for a wide range of reasons and mainly to seek a job. Thirdly, the paper concludes that in post-Qadhafi Libya the migrants’ smuggling is of course increasing rapidly, but on the whole Libya is still a country of destination more than a country of transit according to the findings discussed below.

Keywords: Libya, Africa, Qadhafi, migrats, containment policies

Anita Moser, Department of Communication

Flight and Migration in Media Coverage and Artistic Production


In 2015, public debate on flight and migration in Austria was accompanied by images of asylum seekers in camps at the borders, at train stations, or walking down highways. Based on media coverage and artistic production related to the theme of flight, this talk aims to disclose how identity is constructed in these discourses. We understand contemporary art and media as cultural production providing the symbolic spaces in which identities are (re)produced, contested and modified. In addition to the media, artistic articulations deliver not only material for the emergence of interstitial spaces, but in addition, are often also sites of their development. In such spaces of in-between, trusted patterns of perception are unhinged by means of strategies for aesthetic staging. Methodologically, on the one hand we present the results of a content analysis of the media coverage of the theme of flight from July to September 2015 in the Austrian press, in which the the so-called “Balkan route” was a frequently discussed. On the other hand, the relationship of this coverage to artistic production is pondered. The findings show, that reports on asylum seekers focus on “unaccompanied men” with their presumably patriarchal, backward attitudes. In contrast, Austrian society is conceived as equality-based and modern. In this way, the media discourse on flight and migration demarcates geo-political spaces and makes identity-political determinations. In contrasting print reporting and contemporary artistic production, the talk discusses opportunities and limitations of media and art as spaces of identity formation.

Keywords: flight, cultural production, symbolic spaces, media, art

Fedor Nikolai; Igor Kobylin, Minin University; N. Novgorod Medical Academy

“Aliens inside” Counter-terrorism operation in Chechnya as viewed by Russian combatants: photos and affective communities


Currently, hybrid wars are being launched throughout the world. Their specific character is related, firstly, to new forms of non-state violence. And, secondly, these conflicts are beyond conventional representation forms. The words (“terrorists”, “fascists”, etc.) both in media, and in the stories of veterans themselves greatly fail in agree with their former sense. War on terrorism is waged by Russia and the USA. But seemingly similar terms of its description in these countries sometimes are given the opposite meanings. Under crisis conditions of old narratives and distrust in TV picture shot, a photo increasingly frequently starts playing a role of the medium of higher priority. At any rate, for many Russian veterans of counter-terrorism operations in Chechnya, it is a key medium of their experience (being articulating in the sense of existentialism rather than ironically or ideologically). What can we see in the photos of Russian soldiers? In the course of the speech we are to consider the main types of veterans` photos and related practices: tourist photos (“I was here”), photos “in the bosom of a family”, photos with some trophies of war (knocked-out military machines), photos for a discharge album, etc. However, the most popular category is a group portrait personifying combative brotherhood. On the one hand, its predominance is due to the specific character of fighting a conflict (when small groups appear to be the most effective ones). On the other hand, it embodies the affective experience of a survival community. Turning to the specificity of new wars, it should be emphasized that warring parties in such conflicts frequently use and organize this very affective experience. Narratives and narrative videos assign a symbolic meaning and ideological pathos.

Keywords: terrorism, affective communities, media, memory, biopolitics

Tibor Polya, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology

Narrator’s identification with national identity and the narrative construction of group history


Recent research has found the analysis of group historical narratives useful in studying the national identity. This study explores what the construction of historical narratives on migration reveals about the identification of the narrators with national identity. The study defines the concept of identification based on the self-categorization theory. It is hypothesised that highly identified narrators construe a group historical narrative with more complex structure compared to less identified narrators. The hypothesis was tested on a sample of 260 Hungarian university students who were asked to recount the most important event in the Hungarian national history. The identification with Hungarian national identity was measured by Likert-type questions. The complexity of narratives were analysed in terms of perspective. It has been found that highly identified narrators indicate the characters’ perspective frequently while the narrator’s perspective infrequently. Results are interpreted in the framework of the self-categorization theory.

Keywords: National identity, national history, migration, narrative analysis

Malgorzata Radkiewicz, Jagiellonian University

“Lost in Translation” – Narrations and Representations of EU – migrants in Post-communist cinemas


A Polish writer Eve Hoffman who is a writer of Polish and Jewish roots, left Poland as a child after the second world war, together with her family. First they went to Canada where they were forced, especially children, to learn new language and cultural patterns. As a young woman Hoffman moved to US and again she had to learn how to be an American. In one of her books she described her migrant’s narration as a dynamic process of getting and losing. She called it: “lost in translation”. In my paper I want to examine images and narrations of migrants from post-communist countries who go to other countries within the European Union. Showing selected examples of films, I want to address the issue of translation and transgression: between languages and cultures. And I want to ask some questions, following Hoffman, about losing and gaining in life of migrants.

Keywords: Migration, translation, transgression, identity

Nora Jasmin Ragab, Maastricht Graduate School of Governance/UNU-merit

Diaspora mobilisation in conflict settings: The emergence of the Syrian diaspora in Germany


Conceptually, there has been a shift away from more essentialist conceptions of identity, culture and belonging, towards a focus on transnational mobilisation and collective action of diaspora groups. Drawing on theories from migration studies as well as from social movement and collective action literature, the paper aims at exploring the events and factors that lead to an emergence of Syrian diaspora groups in Germany, how a collective national identity was constructed and a sense of belonging was reinforced. A qualitative study was carried out, in which the analysis is based on in-depth interviews with Syrian diaspora members in Germany and participatory observation of selected diaspora activities from 2012-2016. The findings show that before the revolution, long-distance surveillance carried out by the Syrian state prevented not just major political mobilisation of the Syrian diaspora, but created also a lack of cohesion between the Syrians in Germany, where the attitude towards the others was marked by fear, mistrust and dissociation with the homeland. Transnational mobilisation of the Syrian diaspora emerged greatly in response to the revolution, rather than causing the political change happening in the Syria. It was the uprising which united the people and inspired many Syrians living in Germany to take action to shape the home country´s future. A shared feeling of belonging was created and the national identity of Syrians in Germany was reinforced instead of a fragmentation along ethnic or religious lines. The diaspora movement framed their action based on notions of freedom, democracy and human rights.

Keywords: Diaspora, mobilisation, conflict, Syria, Germany

Kinga Siewior, Jagiellonian University

Post-migratory memory in Poland. Modes of representation of the resettlement’s experience in Polish novel after 1989


In 1945, more than 100 000 km2 of prewar German territory has been awarded to Poland at the Potsdam conference. The transfer of the territory was officially presented as a compensation for the Polish eastern borderlands that the Soviet Union invaded in 1939. As a result, masses of Poles (over 6 mln) were forced to leave their (little) homelands, either voluntarily or compulsorily, and move to the West. This migratory experience as well as the process of assimilation in “foreign”, post-german cultural landscape were put into unprecedented communist propaganda machine that was assembled to explain the necessity and the significance of the movement. A medium for the process became literature, as it put the desired contents and visions of the reality into circulation. Consequently, the representations of the migration were radically reduced and determined by the aggressive, “optimistic” propaganda of the People’s Republic of Poland which “standardized” the shape of individual experiences. My paper concerns literature devoted to the postwar migratory experience written after 1989 – the times when writing imperatives have ceased to be binding and the traumatic dimension of the experience could be exposed. Why the migratory experience is still important to our collective identity? How do younger authors retranscript the migratory experience? What do they outline? Lastly, how do they discuss with the older modes of representations? To answer those questions, I’ll focus on two new modes in post-migratory novel: nostalgic (restorative) and critic (reflective). As a result, based on literary examples, I will try to discuss the identity condition of the Polish post-migratory society in general.

Keywords: memory, migration, literature, ideology

Magdalena Smieszek, Central European University

The Categories of ‘Other’ and Other Human Rights Stories


Categorizations of legal status, separating nationals from migrants from refugees, are embedded within international and national laws, ones that shape cultures. While human rights are said to apply to all human beings equally, the foundational principles are fraught with limitations and contradictions, placing both conceptual and physical borders between the in-groups and the out-groups. In particular, socio-economic and cultural boundaries and the limiting of access to rights are at the core of the ongoing divisions. Hence the longstanding desire of states to delineate between economic migrants in one frame and refugees in the other, limiting socio-economic and cultural rights, all while espousing universal values that are said to apply to everyone equally. At the same time, the ‘mixed migration’ movements, as well as the rise of asylum claims on the grounds of socio-economic persecution, are challenging the glaring discrepancies in international human rights law, and contribute to contesting the categorizations. Through an interdisciplinary methodology, with theoretical underpinnings, the paper will present the paradoxes and ‘psychology’ of human rights, considering how and why we categorize, how the process of socio-economic and cultural inclusion and exclusion is at the heart of the current dissonance in policies and laws concerning migrants and refugees in Europe. Proposals and predictions for conceptual changes will be discussed.

Keywords: Refugees, rights, legal, categories, socio-economic

Jenny Stuemer, University of Auckland

‘Beauty will save the World’: Recontextualising Walled Life in Berlin


Barriers, partitions, and border systems increasingly produce restrictive political spaces and delimited perspectives around the world; however, they also lay bare crossovers between the psychological conditions and historical imaginaries of those they keep apart. Undeniably, Europe in particular is undergoing an intricate escalation of fortification, whereby refugees and asylum seekers have become the emblematic figures of contemporary political exclusion, haunting the imaginary of a unified and peaceful Europe. Contemporary borders separate those whose lives matter from those “whose grievability is indefinitely postponed” as Judith Butler reminds us. However, the physical manifestations of barricading are also fundamental expressions of contemporary biopolitical attempts of subjugating and distinguishing forms of ‘bare life’, uncomfortably echoing a European past of division and persecution. European borders thus also mediate those whose lives are intimately (and often violently) linked to patterns of exclusion, dividing and bridging historical contexts of suffering literally and unconsciously. Drawing attention to such forms of traumatic intersections, the paper discusses the performance artwork of Berlin’s Centre for Political Beauty as demonstrating that Germany’s traumatic past serves as backdrop for contemporary reactions to the ‘refugee crisis’. Exemplifying such borderlines these ‘artivists’ literally displaced the ‘white crosses’ commemorating the victims of the Berlin Wall on the 25th anniversary of the Wall’s demise in honor of the victims of the European borders. Furthermore the CFPB ‘opened up’ graves in front of the Berlin Wall memorial that challenge the contemporary necro-politics enabled by European borders by linking them to culturally intimate forms of exclusion, thereby establishing chains of historical responsibility. Thus, these performance pieces serve as powerful reminders that the boundaries constituting contemporary politics, work in conjunction with the historical and psychological barricades on which they are built.

Keywords: Fortress Europe, refugees, biopolitics, political art, historical trauma

Karolina Sydow, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan

Migrant as an inhabitant. Anthropological reflections on constructing the foreigners


The inspiration for my analysis are anthropologists’ experiences in the activities focusing on practical undertakings concerning migrants in the city of Poznań, Poland which began the contact with local government actors. In my presentation I will focus on policy responses to migration (also forced migration) in the light of local context. I’m interested in studying changes in discourse in which migration and displacement is being described by local government; reasons by which undertaken (or not) actions are being explained. I’m going to present different perspectives on migration issues used by actors involved in this topic in Poznań, namely representatives of local government, different public institutions and non-governmental organizations meant to help migrants and alleviate their “problems”. I’ll focus on individual interpretations of the correspondence between authorities’ decisions and the local value system and analyse existing concepts and definitions visible in the language used by these actors. Some of these concepts refers to ideologies and policies of inclusion and exclusion.


Mate Tokic, Central European University

Cold War Politics and Émigré Croatian Separatist Violence, 1950-1980


Of the myriad terrorist organizations that emerged during the Cold War, those supporting the destruction of socialist Yugoslavia and the establishment of an independent Croatia were among the most active. My talk explores the geo-political context behind the radicalization of certain segments of the migrant Croat population following World War II and the processes that led them to adopt terrorism as an acceptable form of political expression. Specifically, it examines how changes in the realities of the Cold War political landscape—particularly the ‘special’ relationship between Tito’s Yugoslavia and the West and the growing détente between the Soviet Union and the West—directly shaped the strategies of Croatian separatist groups outside of Yugoslavia. These changes placed real pressure on radical separatist groups in the Croatian diaspora, as they resulted in 1) the withdrawal of both moral and material support for separatist organization in the West; 2) an increase in Western tolerance of Yugoslav secret service assassinations of radical émigrés abroad; and even 3) an active courting of (predominantly anti-communist) Croatian separatists by Moscow in its conflict with Belgrade. Together, these developments led migrant Croatian radicals to cultivate a culture of abandonment, betrayal, and persecution, in which the Croats were portrayed as a nation of victims without allies. This helped precipitate a radicalization of the separatist movement, as many within the Croatia diaspora increasingly came to be convinced that only “self-initiated action”—i.e. political violence and terrorism—could hasten the establishment of an independent Croatian state.

Keywords: Terrorism, Emigre Politics, Separatism, Cold War, Yugoslavia

Anna Tuzova, European University at Saint Petersburg

Diasporic projects of the Vietnamese in Saint Petersburg


Owing to deeply rooted discursive practice in academic literature as well as media there is a strong perception of the Vietnamese in Russia or specific Russian cities as constituting the Vietnamese diaspora/diasporas with tight boundaries and a common historical heritage. I argue that considering the Vietnamese living in Saint Petersburg, Russia a diaspora is neither adequate, nor necessary. Vietnamese migrants do not appear to be part of homogeneous community; there are multiple aspects of social differentiation among them. However, one may observe some diasporic projects or practices of Vietnamese migrants, aimed to establish diasporic mentality and to construct collective memory. Among these projects are regular celebrations and banquets, children’s festivals, talent contests, sports competitions (which became traditional); commemorative events such as wreath-laying ceremonies, felicitations of Vietnam War veterans; religious gatherings. Vietnamese ethnic restaurants provide these events with Vietnamese traditional specialties. Moreover, as properly decorated, restaurants often become venue for the banquets. Which projects and to what extent take into consideration “ordinary” Vietnamese migrants and do they reach their goal of boundary maintenance and preservation of specific identity? What are the perceptions of the Vietnamese who do not participate in organizing such events? Is there any intergenerational transmission of cultural values and diasporic self-awareness? In my presentation, based on field research, I’ll try to offer extensive response to these questions.

Keywords: Vietnamese migrants, diasporic projects, identity, ethnic restaurants

Anastasia Usacheva, The Institute of Slavic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Me and the Other: ethnic minorities and cultural diasporas in the Romanian literature of the XXI century


Romania has always been a country with a vast national and cultural diversity due to its history, especially on the territories that became a part of “România Mare” (Great Romania) after World War I, for example Transylvania and the Romanian part of Banat. Historically, this region was inhabited not only by Romanians but also by Hungarians, Germans, Jews, Serbs, etc. The subject of ethnic minorities, their coexistence with the majority is rather important in the Romanian and the emigrant literature of this century. Different authors aim to describe some aspects of this subject. Horea Ursu in his novel “Asediul Vienei” (“The siege of Vienna”), 2007, shows us a fictional town Arad and its citizens, Romanians, Germans, Jews, that go to one church which conducts religious services for all confessions. Petru Cimpoeşu describes a small island in the Pacific, colonized by Romanians (“Christina Domestica şi Vânătorii de suflet” – “Christina Domestica and Soul hunters”, 2006). The novel of the Romanian-born Nobel Prize winner Herta Müller “Atemschaukel” (“The Hunger Angel”), 2009, tells the story of a youth from Sibiu (Transylvania), Leo Auberg, who is deported at the age of 17 to a Soviet forced labor concentration camp in Nowo-Gorlowka and spends five years of his life there. Shown aspects shed light on the perception of this complex subject in modern day Romania and by the emigrants.

Keywords: ethnic minorities, cultural diasporas, emigration, Romanian literature

Miriam Vorrath, University College Dublin, Ireland

Down Under Diaries: Diaspora-Experience and Transnational Ties of Contemporary Irish Immigrants in Australia


According to figures from the EU, IMF, and OECD, the global financial crisis of 2007-08 and ensuing austerity measures have deprived almost a quarter of the workforce of jobs in Ireland and cost the country close to 10% of its young population. This Master’s thesis critically examines the repercussions of a global crisis on a local scale, focussing on the effects of emigration on the economic and social conditions of Carlow, the country’s second smallest county. It is one of the two regions hit worst by recession, resulting in high poverty and unemployment rates. As the youth unemployment rate in the country is at 30% overall, the highest rate in Europe, thousands of young people between the ages of 18 to 23 have decided take their chances elsewhere. Since 2009, over 23,000 Irish have settled in Australia and hence, make up the biggest group of immigrants from Europe down under. Thus, the next section of the paper draws on a qualitative study, examining the situations of migrants from Carlow who decided to make a new start in Australia, exploring the immigrants’ expectations and realities of living abroad and what role the Irish diaspora plays for them. Furthermore, it addresses the question of whether young Irish migrants plan to return to Ireland if their decisions to move cannot be explained as a shift in the lifestyle of young people, but represent an economic and social crisis at home.

Keywords: Financial Crisis, Recession, Emigration, Irish Diaspora, Australia

Basak Yavcan, TOBB University of Economics and Technology

Inter-group contact and Prejudice: Evidence from Syrian Refugee and Turkish Youth Population


Inter-group cohesion is considered to be an important aspect of immigrant integration. The issue assumes immediate importance in Turkey, a new home to 2,7 million Syrian refugees since 2011. Youth constitute a large and vulnerable part of this population with insufficient integration to education system and a majority are subject to early adulthood by raising siblings, child labor as well as child marriages. In other contexts, prejudicial attitudes are shown to be an important obstacle for inter-group attitudes leading to out-group degradation in the forms of discrimination, intolerant behavior as well as violence, all posing major threats for the Syrian youth as well. Set up in a setting of a field survey experiment in two different locations in Turkey, this study illustrates the mediating impact of an intercultural contact resulting from a youth forum on the Syrian and Turkish participant’s intergroup attitudes. Conducted with 40 participants from each group, their their social distance to, stereotypes about, perceived realistic conflict from each other are compared before and after the forum in the light of their future expectations, educational attainment, parental employment and household income. The results have important theoretical and major policy implications on social integration and potential cultural conflict.

Keywords: Syrian, refugees, Turkey, inter-group relations

Carsten Yndigegn, University of Southern Denmark

Migrants, European borders, Populism and European Identity


Recent migration flows in Europe – whether it is internal labour migration, poverty migrants or refugees- have seriously questioned the European project and the idea of European identity. The long-term goal of the European integration process has been to abolish internal borders, cultural, national and political. Major steps have been accomplished; however the Brexit discussion has revealed how fragile the achievements have been. Further, the massive movement of asylum seekers and so-called irregular migrants have opened the gates for social and political currents that have massively released restorative political powers. Further, recent measures taken by EU governments, instead of breaking down borders, rebuild borders. A conflict has occurred between the idea of a borderless world created through mobility and the de facto demarcation due to transnational mobility. The paper will scrutinize what the mobility is threatening to undermine and what the restorative forces are aiming to protect. Both welfare state ideology and nationalism as contemporary and long-term historical phenomena will be thematised in this analysis. The analysis will dig into the development of a predominantly right populist border discourse in recent decades. Thereby it will be demonstrated how an internationalisation and multicultural discourse has been transformed to a local-cosmopolitan dichotomy in an age of globalisation, world migration, and supranational network society. Furthermore, it will be analysed how this populist movement defends the classic deeds of the nation-state by reacting against supposed threats against the cultural norms and heritage coming from cosmopolitan intellectuals, migrants, and cross-national institutions allow the human dimension of globalisation and the developing network society to unfold. Finally, the question will be addressed whether the new populism forebodes the emergence of a new European identity of collaborating nationalists.

Keywords: migration, bordering, populism, nationalism, European identity

Ivaylo Yoshkov, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”

Who are they? Bulgarian citizen journalism representing the identity of Syrian refugees


The refugee crisis in Europe, caused by the conflict in Syria, led to many discussions and controversies in Bulgarian society. In spite of not lying on the main refugee route towards Europe and the relatively small numbers of refugees crossing Bulgarian borders, Bulgarian citizens felt threatened by the thousands of refugees in neighbouring countries like Turkey, Greece, etc. Bulgarian mass media became an arena of many political disputes, most of which were easily recognizable as populist. However the irrational string of fear was already vibrant. Terrorist attacks in Paris, Ankara and other cities, the country’s weakened defensive forces and its economical instability made the society even more sensitive about the refugee crisis. The question that the society felt most uncertain about was who the refugees actually were – terrorists on their way to bomb and conquer Europe or just ordinary, often highly educated, people running away from war. The current paper analyzes the identity of the refugees as it is represented by Bulgarian citizen journalism both within the websites of traditional mass media (using the user-generated content options) and in social media. The results will also define the level of socialization of traditional mass media websites as well as the capabilities of citizen journalism in relation to some classical communication theories such as the Agenda setting theory and the Gatekeeper theory.

Keywords: refugees, citizens, social, media, journalism

Ekaterina Zheltova, European University at Saint Petersburg

Constructing folk linguistic knowledge in minority: linguistic ideologies among the Greek speakers in Himara and Dervitsiani (Southern Albania/Northern Epirus)


This paper aims to present some of the ideas my consultants articulated about the linguistic codes that constitute their multilingual repertoire, to classify them, and to analyze them in the contexts of identity construction specific for these communities. The research is based on the data collected during two field trips held in August – September 2014 and in February 2015 in two bilingual regions of Southern Albania – Himara and Dropul. Ca. 60 respondents of different age, gender and social background took part in the research. For collecting material, the methods of semi-structured interviews and participant observation were applied. In my analysis I take the methodological perspective of discourse analysis. The linguistic ideologies presented in the paper fall into two categories: “beliefs about Albanian in contrast with Greek” and “beliefs about the local Greek idiom”. These linguistic ideologies manage the social boundaries between local communities and the two “significant others” – the “imagined communities” of Greek and Albanian national states. They are instrumental in people’s search for the imagined “motherland” of the Greek nation-state, and, at the same time, help support the local identity and adjust the status of their community to the situation, as well as “improve” locality turning it into ethnicity.

Keywords: linguistic ideologies, folk linguistics, minority, identity, Greek-Albanian border

Milena Aneva, The South-West University “Neofit Rilski”

Mediterranean nomadic herders


Karakachans many hold the family. To practice nomadic pastoralism is required relationships between members of the family to prick narrow, deep and very honest. Our major focus centers upon primeval spiritual archetypes of man. We go back to the roots not because of nostalgia for the past, but, rather, motivated by utopia about the future. Theatre, like Noah`s Ark, is about to step over the threshold of the twenty-first century preserving the memory of the Spiritual in the Deluge of the Material.

Keywords: theatre, art, nomads, mediteraniumm

Ангелина Бановиќ-Марковска, Универзитет “Св. Кирил и Методиј”, Скопје

Варварите до нас, варварите во нас: хуманото и субхуманото лице на Континентот

Апстракт / Тезисы

Западноевропската цивилизаторска и колонијална парадигма ја препознала и впишала другоста во дивиот, нагонски, сексуално потентен и агресивен варварин, опишан во романот на Џ.М.Куци. Но, Тврдината Европа – на чии граници преживуваат денес милиони бегалци и мигранти од блискиот Исток – не е само целта што Другиот очајнички ја посакува, туку и местото на кое се случува неговата смрт. Првата перцепција за Европа ја претставува “зоната на постоењето”, втората “зоната на не-постоењето”. Едната им припаѓа на граѓаните (human), другата на “не-граѓаните” (subhuman) – бегалците, мигрантите, азилантите, дислоцираните, дискриминираните… – чија “гола егзистенција” го поништува современото сфаќање за субјективитетот. Исклучени од системот, “субхуманите” го претставуваат денес конститутивниот не-дел на Европа. Тие се диферАнсот на “европскиот апартхејд”, надворешна дијалектика на неговиот симболички поредок, чиј лажен хуманитаризам го открива своето мрачно колонијално и расистичко лице. Овој текст ќе се обиде да покаже колку, во својата крајна инстанца, европската политика е самодеструктивна, а нејзиниот биополитички систем – танатополитички, оти (како суштина на неолиберализмот) “смртта на политичкото”, ја имплицира, де факто, самата смрт.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Варвари, Европа, биополитика, субхуман, расизам

Лидия Бородина, Пермский национальный исследовательский университет

Политика языковой адаптации мигрантов в этнических автономиях европейских государств.

Апстракт / Тезисы

Миграция представляет серьезный вызов для принимающих государств. Опасаясь за свою национальную идентичность и стремясь сохранить относительную гомогенность внутри общества, власти все чаще нормативно закрепляют требования о знании национального языка или его изучении для мигрантов. Это, если использовать терминологию Р.Брубейкера , является частью институционализированного в стране лингвистического режима. Общества современных европейских государств не являются монолингвалиными. В составе как федераций (Бельгия, Швейцария, БиГ и др.), так и децентрализованных унитарных государств (Испания, Великобритания, Финляндия и др.) есть территории, отличающиеся по этническим, религиозным и/или языковым характеристикам, наделенные статусом этнической территориальной автономии (ЭТА). Эти ассиметричные регионы посредством преференциальной языковой политики создают свои собственные территориальные языковые режимы, функционирование которых сохраняет и воспроизводит титульную этническую группу или группы меньшинств. Степень активной государственной регуляции языковой политики может варьироваться. Одним из критериев жесткости режима могут выступать требования к мигрантам обладать определенным уровнем лингвистической компетенции. Таким образом, образовательная языковая политика становится одним из маркеров силы режима; вторым могут выступать требования использования языка в публичном общении, в том числе в делопроизводстве. Степень и формат контроля над языковой политикой, форма ее реализации во многом зависят от размера титульной этнической группы. Вероятно, при наличии ЭТА, последние могут параллельно с центральной государственной властью выдвигать собственные требования по отношению к пребывающим в автономию мигрантам по освоению местного/регионального языка. Насколько распространенной является практика адаптации как части функционирования территориального языкового режима по отношению к прибывающим в ЭТА мигрантам?

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: языковая политика, этнические территориальные автономии, территориальный лингвистический режим, мигранты

Инна Вакина, Пермский государственный национальный исследовательский университет

Этнические территориальные автономии в Латинской Америке как решение конфликта культур

Апстракт / Тезисы

Сегодня во всех странах Латинской Америки конституционно закреплено соблюдение прав коренных народов на самоопределение, сохранение их культуры, право на землю, а наряду с государственным языком статусом официального регионального языка может обладать “индейский”, предусмотрена возможность образования этнических территориальных автономий (ЭТА) в местах компактного проживания коренных народов, что позволяет не допускать развитие этнического конфликта. Однако только в случае Никарагуа и Панамы ЭТА были созданы и функционируют длительное время. Но несмотря на конституционное закрепление прав, коренные народы достаточно часто подвергаются дискриминации, насилию. Более того, процесс образования ЭТА в большинстве стран региона затруднен излишней бюрократизацией, что делает процедуру труднореализуемой. Коренное население фактически оказывается исключенным из политического процесса. Переход к демократии, сопряженный с массовым уходом военных диктатур с политической арены и серьезными экономическим преобразованиями во многих странах мира в конце XX века, в случае сложносоставных обществ привел к расширению прав этнических меньшинств, что коснулось и стран “Нового света”, территории которого этнически неоднородны и где коренное население было исключено из процессов национального строительства в силу изначально “колониального типа отношений”. По мнению Ван Котт , такая возможность заявить о своих правах появилась у коренного населения стран Латинской Америки в момент крушения авторитарных режимов. Индейцы требовали прав равноценных правам белого населения, институционализации права на самоопределение, сохранение собственной культуры на землях исконного проживания, права на участие в принятии политических решений. В период третьей волны демократизации (1970-80-е гг.) во многих странах региона индейские освободительные движение достигли пика своей активности, выдвигая требования культурной автономии и защиты прав, но ни в одном из случаев эти движения не оказались результативными в плане установления ЭТА. Напротив, индейские движения в условиях провала требований ЭТА радикализировались и даже приобретали характер террористических организаций. В связи с этим возникает вопрос, о том, набор каких факторов сыграл свою роль в удаче или неудаче институционализации ЭТА.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: этнические территориальные автономии, коренное население, этнический конфликт

Светлана Велимирович, Тюменский государственний институт культуры

Универсалии как общие ценности культуры

Апстракт / Тезисы

Взаимодействие культур – неизбежность современности. Поводы к взаимодействию могут быть различные – экономические, религиозные, художественные. Виды взаимодействия при этом разнообразны: диалог, конфронтация, конфликт, терроризм и другие. Есть мнение о неизбежности конфликтов (С.Хантингтон) из-за различия в культуре, в основном религии. Но нельзя недооценивать при взаимодействии культур и положительные факторы, какими являются культурные универсалии. Универсалии отражают признаки, присущие всем этническим культурам. Во всех культурах присутствуют артефакты, продукты и принципы деятельности, ценности, символы, духовные идеалы. Универсалии в их конкретно-историческом сочетании образуют систему основных форм бытия и функционирования любой культуры на всех этапах ее развития. Это «общий знаменатель» (В.С.Степин) делает возможным взаимодействие культур в эпоху глобального многообразия в виде диалога, сотрудничества и представляет собой наиболее общее качество, присутствующее в каждой локальной составляющей. В качестве «общего знаменателя» может выступать религия, общая история, устои повседневной жизни и другие феномены. Примером диалогового взаимодействия на основе «общего знаменателя» могут быть отношения русской и сербской культур. Православная религия, историческое прошлое позволяют строить диалог, сотрудничать в экономической, художественной и других сферах жизни. Положительная практика такого сотрудничества существует в деятельности сербской диаспоры в тюменской области. Совместно трудятся архитекторы двух стран при застройке новых микрорайонов Тюмени. Романы всемирно известных сербских писателей Горана Петровича и Горданы Чирьянич переведены на русский язык и изданы в Тюмени, положив начало проекту “Тюмень. Мировая литература”. В плане – издание книг сербских писателей о поездках по Сибири. Международный издательский цикл решено начать именно с сербских авторов – эта страна близка россиянам по духу, менталитету, по «общему знаменателю».

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова:

Олег Горбачев; Людмила Мазур, Уральский федеральный университет

Этнические мигранты на Среднем Урале в XX веке: модели адаптации

Апстракт / Тезисы

Миграция жителей Белоруссии в восточные районы Российской империи началась на рубеже XIX – начале XX вв. в форме сельскохозяйственного переселения. В дальнейшем миграция на Урал развивалась за счет развития форм принудительной и добровольной индустриальной миграции. В 1939 г. белорусское население Среднего Урала насчитывало около 15 тыс. чел. В зависимости от места расселения мигрантов выделяются две базовые модели адаптации: 1) социокультурной резервации (консервирование национальных различий) и 2) ассимиляции. Первая модель характерна для сельскохозяйственного переселения, связанного с формированием локальных очагов расселения, где создавались условия для сохранения национального языка и культуры. В 1926 г. на Среднем Урале насчитывалось 110 белорусских сельских поселений. Однако на фоне индустриализации они теряли национальную идентичность – к концу советской эпохи большинство их жителей предпочитали называть себя русскими. Полной ассимиляции, тем не менее, не произошло, поскольку современные жители этих деревень являются носителями элементов белорусской культуры. Вторая модель адаптации начинает преобладать в 1930–1940-е гг. и характеризуется утратой национальной идентичности во втором–третьем поколениях мигрантов. Эта модель характерна для: 1) раскулаченных крестьян и других принудительных мигрантов, пополнявших население интернациональных аграрно-индустриальных спецпоселений НКВД; 2) рабочих, завербованных на стройки первых пятилеток; 3) эвакуированных на Урал в годы Великой Отечественной войны и оставшихся в регионе; 4) индустриальных мигрантов второй половины XX века. Адаптивное поведение белорусских мигрантов в рамках второй модели было ориентировано на ассимиляцию с русским населением, чему способствовало сходство языка и культуры. Такой сценарий следует считать типичным для индустриальной территории миграционного «плавильного котла», каковой является Средний Урал. Переход от первой ко второй модели адаптации мигрантов был закономерен с точки зрения реалий индустриальной модернизации страны.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: миграция, адаптация мигрантов, Белоруссия, Средний Урал

Вера Гошева, Институт за национална историја-Скопје

Принципот “доброволност” во билатералните договори за размена на население: Договорот Калфов-Политис (1924)

Апстракт / Тезисы

Размената на население врз основа на одлуки на управувачката власт најчесто на две држави не секогаш се спроведувала на доброволна основа. Случајот со македонскиот народ кој по завршувањето на Првата светска војна останал во границите на Грција ја потврдува оваа констатација. Како резултат на неколку билатерални договори за размена на население помеѓу Бугарија и Грција, склучени под покровителство на Лигата на народите, тој бил подложен на присилно иселување. Целта на овој труд е да се разгледа начинот на кој бил спроведен во дело договорот за размена на население помеѓу Бугарија и Грција, а потпишан од страна на нивните министри за надворешни работи Христо Калфов и Николаос Политис во септември 1924 година. Врз основа на натписите објавени во весниците на македонската емиграција во Бугарија се прави обид да се посочат сите проблеми на кои наидувале македонските бегалци кои во најголемиот број случаи биле принудени присилно да мигрираат во Бугарија.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: македонски народ, размена на население, меѓународни договори, Лига на народите

Милица Денковска, МИТ Универзитет Скопје

Факторите кои влијаат врз перцепцијата на туѓоста во патописната книжевност

Апстракт / Тезисы

Фундаменталната спротивност на “своето” и “туѓото”, се чини, се има реализирано во текот на мошне долг временски период, од антиката до средниот век, како една ригидна социјална, културолошка и пред сè и религиозна спротивставеност. Послеантичкот окцидентален однос кон туѓото пак бил радикално дихотомизиран длабоко во средниот век под религиозни предзнаци; христијанството станува категорија, која дозволува дуалистички поредок на сликата за светот на религиозно, политичко и културолошко ниво според шемата на “доброто” и “злото”. Суштинско ново вреднување се појавува дури во раната модерна, каде што настануваат концепциски форми помеѓу своето и туѓото, во кои се отповикува дихотомијата. Оваа промена се манифестира во проминентните книжевни свидетелства на вековите на откритијата. Рецепцијата на извештаите од експедиции беше одлучувачки импулс за новото одредување на (само)разбирањето на сопствената култура, како и за нова концептуализација на туѓото. Но традиционалните концепциски форми останаа втиснати во реалната пракса на колонизаторите во процесот на европеизација, а модерната разви исто така сопствени стратегии за легитимација на таквите исклучувачки начини на согледување. Туѓинецот станува фермент на економските и културолошките промени врз основа на специфичните квалификации кои може да ги претстави во културното опкружување. Овие историски процеси можат да се гледаат како паралелен развој кон рецепцијата на туѓинецот преку колонијалистичката и империјалистичката експанзија; во својата интерконекција, двата процеси придонесуваат кон историската стандардизација на светот преку европеизацијата. И токму овие процеси носат консеквенции за формите, во кои патописот го опишува туѓото. Одредени се преку социјалниот статус на патописците и нивната инволвираност во менталитетот на општествените групи; суштински зависат и од техничкиот и организацискиот стандард на превозните средства; и конечно се под влијание и на личните диспозиции на патописецот, кои се кристализираат во неговото образование, предзнаења, интереси како и неговите општи перцептивни способности.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Патопис, патописец, туѓост, култура, перцепција

Анита Димитријовска Jанкуловска, МИТ Универзитет Скопје

Кој е фанатикот?

Апстракт / Тезисы

Расказот Мојот син, фанатик на Ханиф Куреиши, ќе послужи како предлошка за анализа на Другоста на постколонијалниот субјект во современото британско западно општество, каде што е сместен, по пат на мимикрија, хибридност и создавање и пресоздавање на сопството низ процесот на интернационализација. Преку постколонијалната теорија, која ги вклучува ставовите на Хоми Баба за внатрешната поделеност и расцепеност на субјектот дојденец со своја култура, заклучоците на Ф. Фанон за отсуство на Едипов комплекс кај колонизираните народи и ставовите а Е. Саид за европскиот супериорен идентитет, ќе биде разгледана приказната за таткото и синот, кои се посколонијални субјекти, пакистанци, “натурализирани” британци. Овој труд ќе се занимава со различните перцепции на таткото и синот за западното општество, кои создаваат жесток конфликт меѓу нив, што на крајот резултира со распаѓање на врската татко-син.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Другост, постколонијален субјект, модерно запдно британско општество, хибридност.

Дона Димов- Марковска; Драго Жупариќ-Иљиќ, Центар за еднакви можности; Институт за миграции и етнички студии

Од Гевгелија до Брегана: Скршени надежи долж Балканскиот пат

Апстракт / Тезисы

Многу бегалци биле пренесени и им било дозволено да поминат низ хуманитарениот коридор долж Балканскиот пат се до февруари 2016. Потоа, тие биле пресретнати, притворени и повторно прими. Во целиот тој период од пролетта 2015 до пролетта 2016 година двете земји се соочуваат со голем број предизвици поврзани со прием на овие лица на територијата, прием и помош во натамошниот транзит на бегалците, како и прием други принудени мигранти. Оваа истражување ги анализа различностите на националните политики на Македонија и Хрватска, во управувањето со приливот на бегалци кон нивните национални територии. Тоа вклучува не само хуманитарни мерки од страна на државата и недржавните актери, но, исто така, намалување на стандардите за заштита, отстапување на солидарност и зајакнување на безбедносните мерки. Во нашата анализа ние ќе ги опишеме и споредиме одговорите на државите на Македонија и Хрватска во ситуацијата на т.н. “бегалската криза”, при тоа анализирајќи и критикувајаќи одредени мерки за надзор на границата, етничко профилирање, реадмисијата и затворање на Балканскиот пат во поглед на (пост) договор помеѓу ЕУ и Турција. Нашиот пристап се базира на desk-study анализа на најновите Европски, национални и регионални политики и увид во состојбата кои се поврзани со прием и сместување на бегалците на граничните премини или во објекти за прием /сместување. Ние сметаме дека ситуацијата на затварање на границите, оставање на луѓето во молк, отсутен и деполитизиран хуманитарна простор каде што државата може да ја надмине својата моќ и контрола, а при тоа да ги повлече своите обврски кон луѓето на кои им е потребана заштита. Овој став на промена на дискусијаа од безбедноста vs. хуманитаризмот каде ќе биде нагласен сеопфатен пристап на човековите права и културните димензии на сегашните предизвици.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Бегалци, Хрватска, Македонија, Балканска рута, азил

Кристина Димовска, Институт за фолклор “Марко Цепенков”

Теоријата на Г. Л. Пермјаков за кратките форми како граничен дискурс

Апстракт / Тезисы

Истражувачкиот труд претставува современ осврт и коментар на теоријата на рускиот паремиолог Григориј Лвович Пермјаков (1919 – 1983), за кратките форми како граничен дискурс. Во својата исклучително инструктивна студија Од поговорки до сказки (Заметки по общей теории клише) (1970), Г. Л. Пермјаков ги третира кратките форми како видови говорни клишеа, што значи дека тие можат да се класифицираат како граничен дискурс, виз-а-ви стандардниот (руски, а во случајов македонски) јазик. Истражувачкиот труд ја испитува релевантноста на теоријата на Г. Л. Пермјаков во современото сфаќање на кратките форми (со примарен акцент на пословиците и на поговорките) и ги коментира терминолошките решенија што овој руски паремиолог ги нуди во две свои клучни студии. Комбинацијата на неколку методи на истражување, со особен акцент на споредбениот, на лингво-когнитивниот и на синтаксичкиот метод на анализа, треба да помогне во изнаоѓањето консензус за терминолошките дилеми што (сè уште) ја морат паремиологијата. Целта на истражувачкиот труд е не да понуди крајни решенија на овие прашања, туку да ги појасни разликите меѓу пословицата и поговорката како граничен дискурс (низ призма на вокабуларот на Пермјаков); да укаже на битноста на шифтирањето / премостот од стандардниот говор кон пословичниот (провербијален) говор; да покаже дали (македонската и руската) паремиолошка терминологија многу повеќе создава конфузија и хаос во разбирањето на кратките форми, отколку што помага во конечното разрешување на овој проблем.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Г. Л. Пермјаков, кратки форми / паремиологија, граничен дискурс, пословица, поговорка, провербијален исказ, говорни клишеа

Ивана Дрогрешка, Институт за македонска литература

Миграции и култура-Зачувување на културниот идентитет на имигрантот во новото општество

Апстракт / Тезисы

Повеќе од милион имигранти и бегалци во текот на 2015 година влегоа во Европа, предизвикувајќи кризи со кои се борат државите во кои бегалците моментално се наоѓаат. Европските општества се менуват многу брзо како резултат на имиграцијата. Кога луѓето имигрираат од една во друга земја постои веројатност културниот и етничкиот идентитет на поединецот да се промени. Кога луѓето имигрираат тие не го напуштаат нивното културно минато, без оглед на околностите на нивната имиграција. Имиграцијата не е само транснационален процес таа вклучува чувство на загуба, дислокација и отуѓување. Предмет на ова истражување е процесот на адаптација на културните идентитети на имигрантите и бегалците и нивните културни вредности во новите општества. Интеграцијата на новодојденци во општество е динамичен и двонасочен процес, кој бара напори од сите коишто се вклучени во овој процес. Тоа бара постоење на подготвеност од страна на имигрантите, да го прифатат општеството домаќин, без да се откажат од сопствениот културен идентитет, како и подготвеноста од страна на заедниците и јавните институции, да ги примат новодојденци во општество. Истражувањето ќе биде разработено од повеќе аспекти, дефинирање на идентитетот на мигрантот, неговите обичаи и верувања, начинот на кој тој ја презентира неговата култура, презентирање на новата култура и нејзино прифаќање и признавање. Ќе бидат разработени политики за интеграција на мигранти и бегалците во општеството и ќе биде направена нивна компарација. Цел на ова истражување е осознавање на процесот на адаптација на културниот идентитет на имигрантот во новото општество со цел добивање на информации кои ќе го олеснат истиот и ќе придонесат до негово подобрување.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Културен идентитет, мигранти, бегалска криза, културни вредности, адаптација

Елена Живкович, Московский педагогический государственный университет

Этнические установки мигрантов-черногорцев в Сербии.

Апстракт / Тезисы

Исследование посвящено изучению особенностей этнических установок мигрантов в Сербии; в нем приняли участие 122 мигранта из Черногории, переехавших в различные города Сербии по причине учебы, работы и семейным обстоятельствам, от 2 до 15 лет назад. Установки выявлены с помощью методики, в которой испытуемые в свободной форме должны были описать собственную этническую группу, титульный этнос (сербов) и два наиболее распространенных местных этноса – бошняков и хорватов 4-5 характеристиками. В большинстве случаев мигранты описали титульный этнос, используя следующие определения: порядочные(75%), дружелюбные(70%), смелые(50%), гордые (40%), трудолюбивые (40%); отмеченные негативные черты отличаются большим разбросом и низкой частотностью, что указывает на личностный опыт негативного контакта. По отношению к бошнякам респонденты отметили амбивалентные характеристики: часть респондентов отмечает их дружелюбие, открытость, уважительность (50%), в то же время другая часть респондентов характеризует их с отрицательной стороны, отмечая их закрытость и хитрость (35%). Кроме того, респонденты отмечают их религиозность и консервативность. Наиболее негативная оценка дана хорватам. Они оцениваются как: дистантные (67%), лицемерные и эгоистичные(70%). Из положительных черт выделяются образованность (41%) и трудолюбие (33%). Только некоторые из качеств сходны описанию черногорцами своей собственной группы, что говорит о том, что черногорцы не рассматривают хорватов как близкий им народ. Описывая свой этнос, респонденты использовали такие определения как: смелые (92%), порядочные (75%), дружелюбные (41%) и традиционные (33%), но при этом отметили высокомерность (92%) и ленивые (33%). Исследование выявило у черногорцев-мигрантов позитивные установки по отношению к своей этнической группе, преимущественно позитивные – по отношению к сербам, в целом негативные по отношению к хорватам и амбивалентные по отношению к бошнякам.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: мигранты, этнические установки, этнос

Людмила Захарова, Тюменский государственний институт культуры

Универсалии как общие ценности культуры

Апстракт / Тезисы

Взаимодействие культур – неизбежность современности. Поводы к взаимодействию могут быть различные – экономические, религиозные, художественные. Виды взаимодействия при этом разнообразны: диалог, конфронтация, конфликт, терроризм и другие. Есть мнение о неизбежности конфликтов (С.Хантингтон) из-за различия в культуре, в основном религии. Но нельзя недооценивать при взаимодействии культур и положительные факторы, какими являются культурные универсалии. Универсалии отражают признаки, присущие всем этническим культурам. Во всех культурах присутствуют артефакты, продукты и принципы деятельности, ценности, символы, духовные идеалы. Универсалии в их конкретно-историческом сочетании образуют систему основных форм бытия и функционирования любой культуры на всех этапах ее развития. Это «общий знаменатель» (В.С.Степин) делает возможным взаимодействие культур в эпоху глобального многообразия в виде диалога, сотрудничества и представляет собой наиболее общее качество, присутствующее в каждой локальной составляющей. В качестве «общего знаменателя» может выступать религия, общая история, устои повседневной жизни и другие феномены. Примером диалогового взаимодействия на основе «общего знаменателя» могут быть отношения русской и сербской культур. Православная религия, историческое прошлое позволяют строить диалог, сотрудничать в экономической, художественной и других сферах жизни. Положительная практика такого сотрудничества существует в деятельности сербской диаспоры в тюменской области. Совместно трудятся архитекторы двух стран при застройке новых микрорайонов Тюмени. Романы всемирно известных сербских писателей Горана Петровича и Горданы Чирьянич переведены на русский язык и изданы в Тюмени, положив начало проекту “Тюмень. Мировая литература”. В плане – издание книг сербских писателей о поездках по Сибири. Международный издательский цикл решено начать именно с сербских авторов – эта страна близка россиянам по духу, менталитету, по «общему знаменателю».

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова:

Соња Здравкова-Џепароска, Универзитет “Св Кирил и Методиј”

Прашања за културната миграција и интеркултурните врски во делот на танцот

Апстракт / Тезисы

Културниот идентитет во делот на танцовата уметност особено во современите форми е област која иницира мноштво прашања. Универзалниот, кодифициран јазик наспроти специфичните локални црти и карактеристики го наметнува современиот танц како своевиден метасистем кај е повеќе глобален отколку затворен и ограничувачки. За разлика од фолклорот кој е идиом за националните специфики и супстрат за зачувување на културната меморија, артифициелните системи како балетот и модерниот танц трансцендираа над востановените категории нација, ентницитет, род, класа, раса. Сепак и во овој генерален/општ изразен систем се пројавуваат одредени карактеристики кој се дистинктивни. Општествените трендови наметнуваат се помасовна флуктуација на креативниот кадар од оваа област, што го поставува прашањето на создавање интеркултурни врски односно процес на размена или вкрстување. Македонската дијаспората во однос на претставниците на уметничките танцови форми е сведена на само неколку активни творци. Дел од нив ја покриваат репродуктивната сфера или се афирмирани во некои специфични области на танцовиот тренинг и профилакса. Анализата направена врз основа на нивниот уметички изведувачи профили ќе се насочи кон фиксирање на одредени тенденции односно творечки пројави кои се одраз на нивната нативна култура, односно носат белег на култирниот идентитет кој се поврзува со македонскиот контекст. Идејата на нашата дијаспора во секторот на танцовата уметност е да создаде хибридни формати кои се симбиоза помеѓу стандардизираните прифатени изразни алатки (вокабулар, техника, стил) но со имплементирање на одредени препознатливи елементи кои се дел од македонскиот културен код.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: миграција, дијаспора, танц, интеркултурни врски

Маријана Јанческа, Универзитет “Св. Кирил и Методиј”, Скопје

Концептот на должност во општеството (над и под рамките на должноста)

Апстракт / Тезисы

Трудот има за цел да поттикне демократска расправа како одговор на прашањето кои традиции да се негуваат, а со кои да се раскине, каков однос да се има кон сопствената историја, меѓу себе и кон мигрантите, во услови на пост-мигрантско општество. Ќе тргнеме од утврдување на различности и сличности меѓу културата во поширока смисла која не мора да ја споделуваат сите и заедничката политичка култура која мора да е стожер на едно пост-мигрантско општество. Трудот го застапува стојалиштето дека заедничката политичка култура мора да се надоврзува на Универзалната декларација за човековите права и да ги надминува ксенофобичните националистички стојалишта. Со други зборови, доколку сепаратистичкиот менталитет го издигне националниот и/или етничкиот идентитет над универзалниот човечки идентитет, се создава сериозна опасност за ерозија на основните човекови права. Пост-мигрантското општество може да се разгледува како своевидна транзиција, премин од една општествена структура во друга и многу е значајно кои политики на признавање ќе се искористат за да се одржи идентитетот по настанатата миграција. Тргнувајќи од хипотезата дека само артикулирана потреба е општествено оправдана потреба, дополнително ќе го разгледаме и трансформативниот процес на зборот бегалец во мигрант и улогата на медиумите, а со цел контекстуално разглобување на пост-мигрантското општество.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: миграција, општество, транзиција, должност, нација

Изумруд Керимова, Московский педагогический государственный университет

Этнические установки мигрантов-черногорцев в Сербии.

Апстракт / Тезисы

Исследование посвящено изучению особенностей этнических установок мигрантов в Сербии; в нем приняли участие 122 мигранта из Черногории, переехавших в различные города Сербии по причине учебы, работы и семейным обстоятельствам, от 2 до 15 лет назад. Установки выявлены с помощью методики, в которой испытуемые в свободной форме должны были описать собственную этническую группу, титульный этнос (сербов) и два наиболее распространенных местных этноса – бошняков и хорватов 4-5 характеристиками. В большинстве случаев мигранты описали титульный этнос, используя следующие определения: порядочные(75%), дружелюбные(70%), смелые(50%), гордые (40%), трудолюбивые (40%); отмеченные негативные черты отличаются большим разбросом и низкой частотностью, что указывает на личностный опыт негативного контакта. По отношению к бошнякам респонденты отметили амбивалентные характеристики: часть респондентов отмечает их дружелюбие, открытость, уважительность (50%), в то же время другая часть респондентов характеризует их с отрицательной стороны, отмечая их закрытость и хитрость (35%). Кроме того, респонденты отмечают их религиозность и консервативность. Наиболее негативная оценка дана хорватам. Они оцениваются как: дистантные (67%), лицемерные и эгоистичные(70%). Из положительных черт выделяются образованность (41%) и трудолюбие (33%). Только некоторые из качеств сходны описанию черногорцами своей собственной группы, что говорит о том, что черногорцы не рассматривают хорватов как близкий им народ. Описывая свой этнос, респонденты использовали такие определения как: смелые (92%), порядочные (75%), дружелюбные (41%) и традиционные (33%), но при этом отметили высокомерность (92%) и ленивые (33%). Исследование выявило у черногорцев-мигрантов позитивные установки по отношению к своей этнической группе, преимущественно позитивные – по отношению к сербам, в целом негативные по отношению к хорватам и амбивалентные по отношению к бошнякам.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: мигранты, этнические установки, этнос

Нина Козловцева, Государственный институт русского языка им. А.С. Пушкина

Русский мир и Русская диаспора: интеграция или конфронтация?


В контексте мировых глобализационных процессов, нивелирующих границы между странами и этнокультурами, а также обратных им процессов глокализации, заключающихся в культивации национальных культур, вопросы взаимодействия стран исхода и диаспор встают особо остро. В мире существуют практики стран, взаимодействие которых со своими диаспорами эффективно и взаимовыгодно (например, Китая, Индии). В рамках подобных взаимоотношений диаспоры выполняют функцию трансляции национальной культуры (в широком понимании) на мировой арене, а страна исхода обеспечивает поддержку разного рода. Россия как страна богатейшей культуры, имеющая третью в мире по численности диаспору, заинтересована именно в таких взаимоотношениях. Возможность взаимодействия России и русской диаспоры, их интеграции в единое социокультурное пространство видится в формировании Русского мира как цивилизационного, наднационального пространства, объединяющего людей, обладающих ментальными и духовными признаками русскости и неравнодушных к судьбе России. Ряд исследователей предполагает, что Русский мир способен стать принципиально новым типом государственности, цивилизационным проектом, формирующим этнокультурное сообщество, построенное по типу «государство – диаспора». Несомненно, создание Русского мира исключительно как проекта политической и социальной элит невозможно. Необходима поддержка и эмоциональный отклик его потенциальных представителей: граждан России и русской диаспоры. В контексте актуального осложнения геополитической ситуации получение такого отклика от диаспоры не очевидно. В связи с этим возникает вопрос об отношении соотечественников к России и Русскому миру, их потребности в такой интеграции. Уже первые полученные результаты интернет-опроса, проведенного среди соотечественников, проживающих за рубежом в начале 2016 года (287 человек из 55 стран мира) позволили определить тенденцию, показывающую отношение соотечественников к Русскому миру и потребность в нём, а также их потенциал для выполнения функции трансляции русской культуры в мире.

Ключевые слова: Русский мир, диаспора, соотечественники за рубежом, цивилизационный проект, Россия

Мирелла Макурат, Јагиелонски Универзитет

Граници помеѓу не-свои – границата во животни стори на “Егејците”

Апстракт / Тезисы

“Не само еднократно, во самиот момент на прогонството и бегалството, туку и трајно, во својата неодминлива располовеност меѓу двата света, распослани од обете страни на границата, Егејците,врз сопствената кожа, ќе ја доживеат егзистенцијалната тетоважа и пеколниот раскол на Границата, во сета нејзина ирационалност и непреодност” (Елизабета Шелева ). Во мојот реферат сакам да ги анализирам последниците на граѓанската војна во Грција од аспект на културна и социјална антропологија врз примери од моите етнографски истражувања, спроведени во Булгарија, Грција и Македонија. Ќе се фокусирам на симболични граници на македонските мигранти и(ли) бегалци од Егејска Македонија.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Симболични граници, граѓанска војна, мигранти, бегалци, Македонци, Егејци

Малхаз Мацаберидзе, Тбилисский государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили

Грузинская диаспора в Кургане (Турция): Вопрос этнической идентичности

Апстракт / Тезисы

После русско-турецкой войны 1877-1878 годов часть населения Батумской области, где проживали грузины-мусульмане, переселилась на территорию Турции. Именно тогда появилось грузинское население в городе Курган (вилайет Орду) и окрестных 4 деревнях. Сегодня их численность составляет 5 тысяч человек, которые являются переселенцами из Кобулетского района (Аджара, Грузия). У этнически грузинского населения Кургана двойная идентичность. Они являются гражданами Турции и доминирует турецкая идентичность. Грузинская идентичность носит вторичный характер. Этнически грузинское население Кургана полностью интегрировано в турецкое общество. У них нет проблем в отношениях с местным турецким населением или же властями. Этнические грузины и турки являются приверженцами одной и той же религии – сунитского ислама. Они обучаются на турецком языке, который стал для них родным. Грузинская идентичность этнически грузинского населения Кургана сегодня формирует несколько основных элементов: Историческая память – их историческая память носит диаспорический характер. Они сохранили память о переселении; существует идея создания этнографического музея, который должен отразить историю диаспоры; Фамилия – помнят грузинские фамилии и гордятся ими; хотят познакомится с однофамильцами в Грузии; Грузинский язык – является основным фактором сохранения грузинской идентичности курганских грузин. Представители старшего поколения говорят по-грузински, молодежь плохо владеет грузинским, некоторые же вообще не говорят по-грузински; «Внешнее отличие» – курганские грузины узнают друг друга по внешнему виду, которым отличаются от соседнего негрузинского населения. В случае расширения контактов курганких грузин с Грузией возможно сохранение и упрочение грузинской идентичности. Рост контактов грузинской диаспоры Кургана с исторической родиной будет способствовать углублению грузино-турецких отношений

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Турция, Курган, диаспора, этническая идентичность, грузины

Галина Петрова, Томский государственный университет

«Архе» русского терроризма (этико-политические следствия судебного оправдания террористического действия Веры Засулич)

Апстракт / Тезисы

Цель исследования по обозначенной теме спровоцирована вопросом о культурно-национальном контексте террористического действия, его влиянии на характер этико-юридической оценки терроризма. Может ли специфика менталитета того или иного народа служить в качестве алиби для оправдания террориста? Речь идёт о русской террористке Вере Засулич, чье террористическое действие до сих пор, с легкой руки и вследствие великого ораторского таланта А. Ф. Кони, получает неоднозначную оценку. В момент же суда решение было однозначно оправдательным. Оправдание приветствовалось как купирование социальной неправоты и ответ «пристыжённого общества», которое раскаивалось в жестокостях и использовании силы в отношении народа. Решение принималось в контексте специфики российской ментальности, православной сострадательности, склонности к прощению, страстного стремления осуществить Царство Божие на земле. Этическое оправдание терроризма ссылалось на социальное неравенство, господство и насилие, которые вызвали дух самопожертвования и желание восстановить справедливость. Поступок Веры Засулич характеризовался в категориях «честь» и «святое дело». Истинным обвиняемым оказался пострадавший Трепов. Можно полагать, что неоднозначное отношение к терроризму, сделав возможным оправдание Веры Засулич, открыло дорогу последующим террористическим действиям на российской (и не только) территории. Оправдание терроризма в отдельном случае явилось «началом», клеточкой, «архе» всего многообразия террористических действий в последующей истории.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: национальный террор, культура, ментальность, «архе» терроризма, этика, право, оправдание, насилие

Катерина Петровска-Кузманова, Институт за фолклор “Марко Цепенков”

Фолклористички истражувања на миграциските процеси

Апстракт / Тезисы

Истражувањето на миграцијата станува едно од новите полиња за истражување на фолклористиката и етнологијата. Како од аспект на теористко проследување на видовите миграција, така и од аспект на интеркултурната комуникација. Во овој контекст е насочен текстот во кој појдовната точка претставуваат досегашните истражувања на оваа проблематика. Во фолкусот на интерес ќе биде методологијата на истражување на овој проблем и заклучоците кои се презентирани во досега публикуваните трудови, од страна на фолклористите и етнолозите. Покрај публикуваниот материјал во истражувањето ќе биде вклучен и материјалот од архивата на Институтот за фолклор “Марко Цепнков, а произлегува од истражувањето на мигрантите од Македонија во САД, Канада и Германија, кон крајот на дваесеттиот и почетокот на дваесетипрвиот век. Со цел посеопфатно да се согледа прашањето за односот на миграцијата кон културните практики и традицијата.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: фолклористика, миграции, истражување, интеркултурна комуникација, традиција

Александр Пирогов, Московский институт электронной техники

Трудовая и культурная интеграция мигрантов в европейское сообщество

Апстракт / Тезисы

В ходе глобализации мир становится более зависимым, происходит трансформация всей структуры мирового хозяйства, тесно переплетаются не только национальные экономики, но и людские ресурсы, человеческий капитал, усиливаются и принимают специфический характер миграционные процессы. В условиях вступления экономически передовых обществ в информационную стадию развития они значительно видоизменились. Автор останавливает свое внимание на двух из них: «электронной миграции» трудовых ресурсов и «невозвратной миграции» населения. «Электронная миграция», свидетелями которой мы являемся в настоящее время, вызвана информационной революцией и связана с телекоммуникацией труда и компьютерными коммуникациями. Особенность «электронной миграции» состоит в том, что она не требует обязательного физического перемещения в другие страны и регионы, знания местной специфики, приспособления к своим клиентам и коллегам по работе и много другого, что свойственно для взаимодействия людей, работающих совместно в одном месте. Это новое явление в мировой практике только набирает силу, но, по оценкам М. Лабузьера и Д. Розенфельда, с помощью «электронной миграции» уже в ближайшем будущем будет выполняться 11% общемировых сервисных работ . И в этом смысле она становится новой ценностью, носящей, однако, двоякий характер: с одной стороны, она предоставляет «электронному мигранту» привычные условия нахождения в своей стране, но с другой – способствует различению условий жизни в социальном, этнонациональном и возрастном отношениях. Иными словами, «электронная миграция» превращается в новый постоянно дефицитный и неравномерно распределенный товар, определяющий стратификацию в обществе : для высших профессиональных слоев она расширяет их свободу и укрепляет социальное пространство информационных потоков; для средних и низших профессиональных слоев, наоборот, может обернуться лишением этой свободы, поскольку компьютерные коммуникации в географическом отношении даже в одной стране распределены неравномерно. Иначе говоря, «электронная миграция» для одних способствует расширению их профессиональной безопасности, для других же сужает ее. Для глобализации характерно расширение обычной миграции трудовых ресурсов. Принимающие мигрантов страны заинтересованы, в первую очередь, в высококвалифицированных кадрах. По прогнозам Еврокомиссии, численность молодых людей до 25 лет в странах Евросюза к 2030 году снизится на 25 млн. человек, а в таких странах как Италия и Испания к 2050 году население в целом уменьшится на 28% и 24% соответственно. Германии, Франции, Великобритании, Испании, чтобы сохранить численность населения, нужно принимать ежегодно не менее 700 тыс. мигрантов, а чтобы сохранить нынешний уровень экономически активного населения число мигрантов необходимо увеличить до 1 млн. человек в год . Без этого, как утверждают специалисты Международной организации труда (МОТ), к 2050 году уровень европейских жизненных стандартов упадет до 78% по отношению к существующему в настоящее время.въезжающая в страну огромная масса людей (сотни тысяч) не может быть полностью подконтрольной ни социальным службам, ни полиции. Свидетельство тому – агрессивное поведение и массовые злоупотребления статусом беженца в Германии, Швеции, Финляндии, связанные, в том числе, с сексуальными домогательствами женщин со стороны мигрантов. Выводы о событиях в европейских странах конца декабря 2015 г. – начала января 2016 г. не терпят поспешности, но одно очевидно: миграция труда неотделима от миграции культуры – это взаимосвязанные процессы. Политика мультикультурализма ранее уже показала свою нежизнеспособность во Франции, теперь это находит еще одно подтверждение в других европейских государствах, приветливо распахнувших свои двери для мигрантов из Северной Африки и Ближнего Востока в надежде на их интеграцию в европейское сообщество. Значительное увеличение численности и компактное проживание последних объективно способствуют тому, что их диаспоры насаждают вокруг себя собственные обычаи, традиции и императивно требуют уважения своей культуры. С другой стороны, необходимо иметь в виду, что под видом мигрантов в европейские страны легко проникают представители террористических организаций, в том числе ИГИЛ. Так, по данным немецкой газета «Berliner Zeitung», со ссылками на источники в спецслужбах, на территорию Германию к январю 2016 года проникло более 100 террористов. Таким образом, вопрос о трудовой, тем более культурной, интеграции мигрантов в европейское сообщество далеко не однозначен ни в настоящее время, ни в будущем, но в странах, приветствующих и проводящих политику мультикультурализма, в настоящем уже свидетельствует о большой уязвимости как безопасности общественной, так и личной безопасности.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: миграция, электронная миграция, культура, культурная идентичность, мультикультурализм, безопасность, глобализация.

Златко Поповски; Весна Катиќ Павловиќ, Универзитет “Св. Кирил и Методиј”; независен истражувач

Можностите на “кетмен”-от и “невистината” во полето на животот и можностите за нивно контекстуализирање во модулот на постмодерниот тероризам

Апстракт / Тезисы

Во трудот што следи најпрвин се испитуваа појавноста и психо-социјалната смисла на “кетменот” во услови на општествен терор, како вид на социјално-политичка доминанта и проникнува во философско-етичката оправданост на овој вид на противставување на техниките на манипулација. Кетменот, како уметнички обликувана, внатрешна, психолошка логика се идентификува со егзистенцијалната форма на себе-очувување, присутна во општества со тоталитарни режими и хронолошки е различно датиран. Истражувачката аналитика својата аргументација ја темели врз значењето на феноменот на кетменот, односно го фокусира проблемот на значењето на невистината како услов на животот – теза која во специфична философска атмосфера ја брани Фридрих Ниче. Се испитува културалната блискост помеѓу апологизацијата на невистината и социјалниот потецијал на тероризмот во услови на едно слично одалечување од логосот и дијалектичката дискурзивност, кога субјектот на дијалог и самиот постанува интерактивен и ги аплицира импулсите на растечките медиумски посредувања. Оддалечувањето од имеративот на вистината и социо-деструктивните настапи би требало да бидат интерферентни во дадени точки и позиции – претпоставуваат авторите – и настојуваат да пронајдат одредени каузо-консекуции во перспектива. Секако дека испитувањето на позиционирањето на постмодернизмот во империјалниот спектакл претставува пластичен аргумент при сондирањето на постмодерниот тероризам, па целиот проект и во таа насока ќе ја претпостави својата зададена цел.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: кетмен, невистина, постмодерен тероризам, естетика на деструкција

Радомир Поповски, Универзитет “Св. Кирил и Методиј”, Скопје

Спектакуларизацијата на општествените настани и можноста за уметничко визуирање на тероризмот

Апстракт / Тезисы

Во трудот што следи се испитуваат одредени услови, можности и граници на спектакуларизацијата на општествените настани, а која се темели врз рапидната динамизација на општеството. При тоа се испитуваат и можностите за контрола и надзор на процесите на медиумското осамостојување и независна трансмисија и продукција на содржини, со цел да се процени нивната етичка диверзификација, општествена подобност и перспектива. Во истражувањето најпрвин се преиспитуваат одредени аспекти на масмедиумската продукција, потоа се востановува релацијата помеѓу уметноста и деструкцијата и на крајот се иследува можноста (како и оправданоста) на спектакуларизацијата на тероризмот. Операбилната широчина на медиумите и растечките можности за манипулација со сликата, диктираат сериозно преиспитување на политичките афинитети кон медиумите, како и законските прецедирања во таа смисла. Хипотетички се смета дека посредувањето помеѓу вулгарната стока и симулираните културни вредности бидува актуелизирано и од популарната култура и од медиумскиот спектакл, при што се постигнува и нивелирање на разликите помеѓу културните вредности на елитите и културните вредности на широката публика – на еден не-дијалектички начин, и во рамките на “слободниот пазар” како основен интегрирачки фактор кој што, во функција на поттикнување на глобалниот конзумеризам, ги нивелира сите разлики. Основната цел е да се разгледаат и преиспитаат основните маханизми и позиции кои што ја претпоставуваат естетизацијата на терористичкиот акт или неговите последици, да се евалвира медиумската презентација и исчитувањето на еден терористички акт и да се резимира дали воопшто постојат услови за “уметничкото дело”.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Спектакуларизацијата на општествените настани, тероризам, медиумскиот спектакл, деструкција, естетизација на тероризмот, тероризмот како уметничко дело

Биљана Рајчинова-Николова, Универзитет “Св. Кирил и Методиј”, Скопје

Диференцијација помеѓу доброволниот и принудниот егзил и артикулациите на невдоменоста/обездоменоста(Кица Барџиева-Колбе и Ташко Георгиевски)

Апстракт / Тезисы

Поимот егзил има широка семантичко – книжевна – културна резонанца. Херменевтиката на егзилот е полемична и присутна тема во синтагматските и парадигматските семантики на домот и вдоменоста. Егзилот, на прв план денотира прогонување, протерување, принудно заминување од домот(родината), но од друга страна имплицинтно, смета и на волевиот чин на субјектот и, станува акт на волја и сопствен избор на субјектот. Хоми Баба, поимот егзил, го поврзува со невдоменоста како принцип, а дискурсот на невдоменоста и егзилот допираат до филозофијата на обездоменоста. Имено, егзилот може да се разгледува и како своеволна(субјективна) и како историски (принудно) предизвикана траума на обездоменоста/(од)домувањето на субјектот. Предмет на истражување е да се истражи содржината и значењето на невдоменоста/обездоменоста на субјектот од другата страна на родокрајното(отаде националната граница), а со тоа да се дефинираат и начините на кои невдоменоста/обездоменоста влијае врз де/реконструирањето на идентитетот. Хипотезата е дека домот е неопходен маркер и своевидна сигнатура на човековиот идентитет, а невдоменоста/обездоменоста е автентичен показател на човековата егзистенција, која радикално ја менува егзистенцијалната рамка на идентификација. Целта на истражувањето е да истражи улогата и функцијата на невдоменоста/обездоменоста во/врз де/реконструирањето на идентитетот(при доброволен и принуден егзил), а во контекст на ресемантизирање на границата како значаен топос во егзилантската практика. Методологијата што ќе се применува е херменевтиката – толкување на значењата и последиците што обездомувањето како аксиом на радикална апатридност ги произведува. Можност за реализација на целта е реинтерпретација на делото Егејци од Кица Барџиева-Колбе и романот Црно семе од Ташко Георгиевски, од аспект на постколонијалната теорија.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: егзил, невдоменост, обездоменост, идентитет, граница,

Татьяна Растимешина, Московский институт электронной техники

Политика национальной памяти в России и эксплуатация культурного наследия: новый российский изоляционизм или ответ на угрозы глобализации и терроризма?

Апстракт / Тезисы

В России государство контролирует большую часть памяти. Память является одним из ключевых направлений политики нациестроительства российской власти. Политический режим конструируют прошлое в соответствии с потребностями политики настоящего, символически пытаясь разрешить конфликт между вызовами современности и задачами легитимации власти. Память в политике нациестроительства замещается и подменяется историцистскими схемами. Они представляют собой социально-философскую концепцию, в основе которой лежат догматизация универсального закона, открывающего возможность интерпретации того или иного факта исторического прошлого и прогнозирования будущего на их основе. Такие схемы производятся и предлагаются нации в рамках политики нациестроительства, реконструируются, уничтожаются и перестраиваются в соответствии с текущими потребностями власти. Культурное наследие является символическим инструментом воспроизводства моделей власти и символическим ресурсом ее легитимации. Правящая элита апеллирует к управляемым посредством «посланий» культурного наследия, в которых закодированы идеи и смыслы актуальной для элиты модели власти. Для закрепления эффекта «соответствия» настоящего прошлому культурное наследие и государственные интерпретации искусственно нагнетаются и навязываются гражданам. Культурное и историческое наследие не столько охраняется, сколько эксплуатируется. Отсюда относительность его ценности в России. Государство не только производит и эксплуатирует память об истории в качестве властного ресурса, подводя идеологическую базу под насаждение историцизма, апеллируя к следующим аргументам. 1. Россия и ее народ нуждается в защите от внешних врагов в лице мирового терроризма, мигрантов и антироссийских сил в мировой политике; 2. Память – пространство политической борьбы с внешними и внутренними политическими противниками. 3. Историки, искусствоведы и представители общественных наук в целом должны быть соратниками или даже слугами государства в борьбе с «исказителями» истории, врагами общества и государства.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: политика, память, культурное наследие, национальная идентичность, вызовы глобализации, религия

Елена Савельева, ИИК Томского государственного университета

Идентичность агента террористической деятельности: культурфилософский анализ.

Апстракт / Тезисы

В XXI веке угроза со стороны экстремизма и терроризма, подрывающая социально-политическую стабильность любой страны, постепенно занимает лидирующее положение. Между тем разобщенность и абсолютизация представлений в рамках «своего» дисциплинарного поля не способствует консолидации и выработке общей методологической программы исследования данных феноменов. Эффективность же изучения причин и механизмов терроризма определяет понимание взаимосвязи между политическими, социальными, психологическими и цивилизационными аспектами развития сообществ. Пополняя ряд возможных стратегий междисциплинарной интеграции, мы предлагаем рассматривать феномен терроризма в контексте проблематики идентичности, осваиваемой культурфилософским знанием. Продуктивность и новизну оптики исследования обуславливает опора на авторскую модель культурной идентичности (В.Е. Буденковой), метафорически представляющую структуру «матрёшки». В контексте предложенной модели раскрываются следующие особенности природы идентичности агента теракта: 1) Доминирующее значение коммуникации коллективного уровня. На это указывают, объект террористического воздействия – условная коллективная фигура, и коллективный субъект теракта. 2) «Ущербность» персональной идентичности, отвечающей за устойчивость идентичности как взаимосвязанной системы. В ряду подтверждающих факторов (предлагаемых психологическими, философско-социальными, антропологическими исследованиями), мы отмечаем деиндивидуализацию личности террориста; специфику процедуры самоидентификации, выстраиваемой на основе принадлежности к группе и отрицания Другого, что обеспечивает обретение собственной идентичности («негативной», «суррогатной», неустойчивой); вне-личностный характер выбора ценностных систем экстремистско-террористической организации. 3) Доминирование в общем репертуаре идентичности таких типов как национальная, этнонациональная, религиозная. То есть функции персональной идентичности берут на себя идентичности большего размера, принадлежащие к мезо- и макро-уровням. Однако культурно-цивилизационный – уровень преодоления «столкновений идентичностей» – остается недостижим, что объясняет невосприимчивость террориста к многообразию культурных миров. Понимание указанных структурных признаков идентичности является, на наш взгляд, необходимой составляющей разработки социально-гуманитарных моделей противодействия и профилактики терроризма.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: модель идентичности, персональная идентичность, коммуникация, ценности

Силвана Сидоровска – Чуповска, Институт за национална историја – Скопје

Македонските црковни општини во дијаспората и негувањето на култот на словенските просветители

Апстракт / Тезисы

Воено-политичките и економските прилики во Македонија на почетокот од 20 век го забрзале и процесот на иселување во САД, Канада, Австралија и западноевропските земји. По обновувањето на Охридската архиепископија во 1958 година и по прогласувањето на автокефалноста во 1967 година, Македонската православна црква направила силен пробив меѓу бројното македонско иселеништво во прекуокеанските земји – САД, Канада и Австралија, како и меѓу Македонците кои повремено или постојано се вработиле во западноевропските и други земји. По 1967 година започнaле да се прават сериозни чекори кон изградба на македонски цркви, манастири, како и основање на црковни општини надвор од границите на Македонија. Денес во дијаспората постојат бројни македонски православни цркви и црковни општини, од кои поголем број го носат името на словенските просветители Кирил и Методиј и нивните ученици Климент и Наум.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Македонија, дијаспора, црква, словенски, просветители

Лилјана Силјановска, Универзитет на Југоисточна Европа

Медиумите и мигрантската криза – Од информации до пропаганда за бегалците во Македонија

Апстракт / Тезисы

Војните во Сирија и Блискиот исток во Европа во поновата историја ја донесоа најголемата мигрантска криза која ги разниша европските вредности и ја подели Европската Унија на про и контра политиката на отворени врати за мигрантите. Приливот на мигрантите, нивната поделба на воени, социјални и економски мигранти, како и Балканската рута која е влез за европските земји, создаде комуникациски реалитет со полизначност на примената во зависност од хуманиот и политичкиот агол на гледање на ова не само европско, туку и меѓународно прашање. Медиумските стории за мигрантите ги ставија на тест не само некои од домашните медиуми, туку и оние од некои странски земји, кои по ова прашање анализираат како Македонија ја третира мигрантската криза. Медиумскиот третман за престојот, мерките и активностите околу спроведувањето на бегалската криза кои се од европско потекло, а наметнати за други земји- како што е и Македонија( од аспект што се уште не е членка на Европската унија), според анализата на содржината на информативните и аналитичките тематски содржини покажува висок степен на објективност, информираност, медиумски плурализам, аналитичност и конструктивност од медиумите во Македонија, наспроти изјавите, и прес – конференциите на некои невладини организации кои низ селекција на фактите и вредностите, повеќе како субјективен став отколку како фактична реалност, се обидуваа да им дадат редуциран пристап во известувањето на медиумите за одделни прашања на мигрантската криза. Манипулацијата со јаното мислење особено кога се продлабочува мигрантската криза, односно се зголемува приливот на бегалците, е изразено од страна на некои европски медиуми кои сакаат да прикажат состојба на недоследна хуманост на македонската држава, злоупотреби од македонското население, несоодветен третма во бегалските кампови и пречекорувања на областувањата на полицијата и војската долж македонската граница.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: мигрантска криза, медиумско известување, редукција, селекција на факти и вредности, меѓународна јавност

Весна Стефановска, Факултет за безбедност-Скопје

Културна криминологија: за поврзаноста помеѓу културата и криминалот

Апстракт / Тезисы

Криминолошката научна мисла е постојано во потрага по нови начини на разбирање и осознавање на криминалот и на неговата контрола. Во тој процес на постојано преиспитување на криминалот и на борбата против него се јавува и културната криминологија како дел од критичката криминологија. Тоа значи дека критичките криминолози, кои, по свое убедување, ја критикуваат традиционалната ортодоксна криминологија и ги отфрлаат основите врз кои таа се гради, за да ги осознаат и разберат криминалот и криминалноста, уште подлабоко навлегуваат во општествените промени. И, како што се менува светот и визуализацијата за него, се јавуваат нови критички мисли кои креираат јадро од кое сакаат да изградат друга криминолошка перспектива или теорија која ќе понуди спротивен дискурс за криминалот и за кривичната правда. За да ја разбереме и да ги изнесеме нејзините гледишта и пристапи кон криминалот и кон неговата контрола, претходно треба да се елаборираат карактеристиките на времето во кое таа се јавува и сличностите, односно разликите во ставовите врз кои се засноваат претходните субкултурни теории. Во таа смисла, трудот го поделивме во неколку дела. Првиот дел се однесува на карактеристиките на доцниот модернизам и на последиците кои тој ги генерира, а кои се поврзани со криминалот. Тие последици се всушност макро и микро факторите кои ја хранат почвата на која се раѓа криминалот како семе, чие ртење и растење е условено, пред се, од транзициските процеси во доцниот модернизам. Вториот дел се однесува на прашањето за културата и за поврзаноста со криминалот и со неговата контрола. Тоа е тесно поврзано со следното, кое се однесува на тоа како всушност културната криминологија го разбира криминалот и како тој треба да се разбере? Ова произлегува од предметот на истражување: што криминалната криминологија истражува, врз основа на кои резултати и податоци го базира своето мислење и кои се целите кои сака да ги постигне.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Културна криминологија, криминал, култура, маргинализација, конструкција

Ана Стојаноска, Факултет за драмски уметности – Скопје

Театарот како безграничен простор

Апстракт / Тезисы

Театарот како безграничен простор Научната студија ја базирам на истражувањето направено за влијанието на границите во театарот, создавањето на потенцијалите на театар надвор од границите на матичната земја, како и начинот на изведби. Насловот намерно провоцира да се истражи потенцијалот на театарот без граничните, националните или другите општествени политики кои го дефинираат во одреден контекст. Текстот е теориска експликација на неколку клучни категории кои треба да бидат воведени во современата театрологија: Театар во граници (национален, идентитетски, матичен), Театар помеѓу (за авторите бипатриди и нивното влијание врз театарот), Театар без граници (светски театар), Миграциите и театарот (создавање на театар во невообичаени услови – претстави на граници, претстави за мигранти, мигранти што носат своја театарска практика). Истражувањето е направено врз примери од македонската театарска практика. За таа цел ќе бидат искористени и неколку драмски автори кои творат и твореле надвор од границите на нашата земја, како и влијанието на истата драматика врз нашиот театар.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: театар, театар без граници, бипатриди, авторски театар

Дарья Сухоева, Пермский государственный национальный исследовательский университет

Образ города в эмигрантском творчестве В.Ф. Ходасевича

Апстракт / Тезисы

Образ города в эмигрантской поэзии В.Ф. Ходасевича является одним из центральных. В немногочисленных произведениях о разных городах Европы писатель обращает внимание на универсальные характеристики европейских центров цивилизации и культуры. Лирический герой Ходасевича, оказываясь в Германии, Франции, Ирландии чаще всего не останавливается на описании природного пейзажа и климата, а фиксирует внешние черты города и погружается во внутреннюю жизнь городского пространства, «исследуя» население города и быт. Европейский мир в сознании героя теряет свою индивидуальность. Намеренное избегание индивидуальных особенностей города объясняется избирательностью авторского зрения. Лирический герой не замечает ни чего особенного и конкретного. В этом случае можно говорить о минус-приёме. Для героя существенно только то, что может охарактеризовать его состояние. Для эмигрантской поэзии Ходасевича характерны следующие сквозные мотивы: мотив замкнутого пространства и мотив заброшенности в мир. Мотив замкнутого пространства всегда связан с границами города. Герой либо фиксирует пространственные ограничители, либо создает иллюзию замкнутого пространства. Городское пространство для лирического героя Ходасевича служит ограничителем жизни и творчеству. Мотив заброшенности в мир, характерный для экзистенциального мировидения, объясняет конфликт героя с окружающей действительностью. Выходами из замкнутого пространства и чужого мира являются для героя погружение в творчество и наблюдение за внешним миром. Лирический герой Ходасевича в большей степени погружен в описание окружающего мира, чем в феномен эмиграции, изгнанничества, сиротства, что отличает его от большинства лирических героев поэтов-эмигрантов. Мотивы одиночества, заброшенности в мир, замкнутого пространства в поэзии Ходасевича обусловлены не потерей дома и родины, как у большинства эмигрантов, а трагическим пониманием действительности.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: цивилизация — природа, мотив заброшенности в мир, мотив замкнутого пространства, герой-наблюдатель, трагизм мироощущения

Жибек Сыздыкова, Институт стран Азии и Африки МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова

Роль и место ислама в жизни мигрантов из Центральной Азии в России

Апстракт / Тезисы

В Москве, где проживает два миллиона мусульман и около двух миллионов рабочих-мигрантов, есть только четыре мечети, и муниципальные власти неоднократно отказывались строить больше мечетей, несмотря на острую потребность в них. Многие молодые люди становятся практикующими мусульманами вовремя своего пребывания в России. На базарах России ислам становится важным средством организации жизни, а также обеспечивает соблюдение гигиены и моральных норм. Через ислам молодые таджикские мужчины приобретают позитивное восприятие своего унизительного рабочего быта и становятся религиозными практиками. Мечети все чаще используются и понимаются как центр социальных, образовательных и политических мероприятий. После молитвы активисты собирают вокруг себя многочисленные группы людей, стремящихся узнать больше информации по различным вопросам, особенно связанным с миграцией и политикой в мусульманском мире, и эти темы обсуждаются и открыто дискутируются. Исследователи и представители власти рассматривают любой конфликт в самой Центральной Азии, как имеющий связь с радикальным исламом (события 2005 г. в Андижане, 2010 г. В Гарме и т.д.). Таким образом, центрально-азиатские мигранты рассматриваются как мусульмане, но при приезде в Россию они сталкиваются с вызовами, связанными с их экономическими интересами и культурным происхождением. Как гастарбайтеры, они стали важнейшей политической проблемой и, следовательно, их мусульманство рассматривается как угроза мирному, доморощенному («своему») татарскому исламу и «исторически хорошим взаимоотношениям с основными мусульманскими странами».

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова: Ислам, угрозы, Центральная Азия, идентичность, культура, цивилизация, мигрант

Свето Тоевски, Државен универзитет Тетово

Апстракт / Тезисы

Овој реферат на интердисциплинарен и холистички начин ги анализира вековните миграции на Македонците во светот, своеволни и присилни во форма на протерувања и иселувања, кои предизвикуваат се понегативни последици за многувековната територија на распространување и за јазичното наследство на македонскиот јазик. Македонската јазична територија го опфаќа централниот дел на Балканскиот Полуостров: сливот на реките Вардар и Струма и долниот тек на реката Места. Особено се тешки последиците за јазичната територија и јазичното наследство на македонскиот јазик од присилните протерувања и мигрирања на Македонците од нивните родни села во денешна Егејска Македонија по “Букурешкиот мировен договор” од 1913 година и распарчувањето на етничка Македонија, напоредно со интензивните асимилаторски и негаторски политики кон македонскиот јазик и етнолингвистички идентитет, но не само во Егејска, туку и во Пиринска Македонија. Во 1913 година Македонците доминирале со 35 отсто во вкупната демографска структура на Егејска Македонија, но, по присилните иселувања во периодот по Илинденското востание тие опаднаа само на 17 отсто од целокупното население во Егејска Македонија. Поради тие иселувања и (е)мигрирања низ светот, таму се исчезнати повеќе македонски села, а дијалектите кои во нив ги говореле дотогаш автохтоните македонски жители сега се само дел од домашните и меѓународните дијалектолошки атласи. Вториот миграциски бран на иселувања и миграции на Македонците од Егејска Македонија, предизвикани поради “Граѓанската војна” во 1946 – 1949 година, доби карактер веќе на масовен егзодус. Миграциони бранови во текот на изминатите сто години ја карактеризираат и Вардарска Македонија – денешна Република Македонија. Како последица на внатрешните миграции села – градови, како и на надворешните (е)миграции и од Вардарскиот дел на Македонија (Република Македонија), во изминатите децении се до денес многу села се веќе демографски “празни”, или имаат изразито мал број на жители и набргу, поради нивната неповолна старосна структура (старо население), голема е веројатноста и тие да останат без ниту еден жител. Ваква е ситуацијата особено во источниот дел на Република Македонија, но, значителен дел од македонското население постапно, но незапирливо ги напушта своите животни простори во населените места и во западниот дел на земјата. Реално, овие подрачја во Македонија се помалку претставуваат дел од територијата на распространување на македонскиот јазик, на која ќе се слуша македонскиот збор и каде што ќе се пренесува од една на друга генерација илјадалетното пребогато наследство на македонскиот народ, содржано во неговиот јазик. Од печалбарска нација во минатото, Македонците денес се претворија во иселеничка нација: можеби и повеќе од 620 илјади родени говорители на македонскиот јазик живеат надвор од Република Македонија, но и надвор од многувековната севкупна македонска јазична територија. Стапката на мигрирање на македонското население се движи од 21 до 26 проценти во последниве пет години. Овој процес продолжува со несмалена динамика, во услови на голема сиромаштија и од други причини и затоа овој реферат пледира за потребата македонската држава да преземе итни и сеопфатни мерки за спречување на погубните последици од (е)миграцијата. Во сегашниот “пост – Вестфалијански” јазичен свет на релативизирани граници на националните држави мора да се осмисли сет на долгорочни социоекономски и социолингвистички мерки за зачувување на македонската јазична територија по пат на поттикнување на населението да остане да живее во своите села, за спречување на миграциско – демографското исчезнување на македонскиот народ од не мали делови на македонската јазична територија, а македонската дијаспора да биде мобилизирана за зачувување на македонскиот јазик и неговото наследство и меѓу втората, третата и натамошните македонски генерации во новите “транснационални простори” на другите континенти во светот. Иако миграцијата е веќе неодбежен, составен дел и димензија на глобализацијата, таа глобализација создава и “транснационални простори”, во кои може дури и да се “прошири” македонската јазична територија надвор од својот балкански географски контекст, под услов да се задржат силната поврзаност со татковината и македонското јазично наследство, а лингвистичките практики на македонскиот јазик интензивно да се развиваат и да се негуваат меѓу македонските иселеници и печалбари.

Клучни зборови / Ключевые слова:


Panel: Narratives of Conflict: Global Media, Digital Technologies and the Unfolding Refugee Crisis
Chair: Sandra Ristovska


This panel tackles the narratives of the unfolding Syrian refugee crisis through the lens of global media and digital technologies to shed light on the interplay between cultural, technological and political mechanisms in shaping public understandings of traumatic occurrences. Narratives of conflict are collections of stories infused in power dynamics that frame how people make sense of the world around them. How narratives are produced and mediated, how they are circulated and remembered, who legitimizes them and to what consequences is thus central to understanding their social and political resonance. The papers on this panel examine how Western narratives about the adoption of digital technologies in the Arab world reiterate old orientalist tropes, how governments and news media shape the refugee crisis, how mobile phones can be helpful tools in humanitarian emergencies, and how ethical discourses are not divorced from political positions. In doing so, the panel raises questions about the agents and practices through which narratives are constructed and the subsequent consequences for political discourse and public engagement.

Keywords: Narratives, media, technologies, Syrian refugee crisis

Omar Al-Ghazzi, University of Sheffield

From the “Arab Spring” to the “Refugee Crisis”: Digital Technologies and Narratives of Othering


This paper looks at how new kinds of discussions about digital technology are used to express old frames of “civilizational othering.” Specifically, it examines how narratives about the political impact of digital technologies are central to the imagination of the “other” in Western-Arab relations. Focusing on events in the Middle East since the 2011 Arab uprisings, this study analyzes the miscommunication engendered by narratives about digital technologies. On the one hand, it explores how Western narratives about digital technologies vis-a-vis the Arab world oscillate from hopeful aspirations about their potential to bring about democracy, to paranoia about their danger when used for terrorism, and anxiety about their utilization by refugees. On the other hand, it discusses the role of digital technologies in how Arab political actors—from pro-democracy activists to Islamic State terrorists—imagine and address the West. I suggest that popular technological determinism has reinvigorated orientalist – and occidentalist – tropes, and it has been mobilized to revive a ‘clash of civilizations’ narrative. I seek to show that the popular imagination of the political function of new technologies is determined by perceptions of who is using them and for what political purposes.

Keywords: Digital technologies, political narratives, othering

Éva Bognár, Central European University

A Comparative Study of the Media Narratives about the Refugee Crisis in Hungary and Austria


The summer of 2015 saw the emergence of the so-called “refugee crisis” in Hungary and in the surrounding countries. Although the Hungarian government may have not been prepared for the rising number of people arriving to its borders, the public was tuned to the government’s anti-migration narratives at the beginning of the year. The government used numerous channels for its messages that set the agenda and defined the discourse on migration, leaving little room for alternative explanations (Bernath-Messing 2015). Over the summer, the topic dominated all Hungarian media and had widespread coverage in Europe as well. Despite the consensus about the importance of the issue across different mediums, there is only anecdotal evidence of diverse narratives and discourses. To better understand the narratives, we conducted a systematic content analysis in two EU member states affected by the “refugee crisis”: Hungary and Austria. To focus our study, our team of researchers selected three events that triggered significant and contrasting political discourses and analyzed the media reporting to detect differences in coverage, perceptions, and the understanding of the “refugee crisis” through a comparative lens. The three events are: the “ghost van” with dead bodies of 71 refugees found on the sideway of A1 motorway in Austria; the “march of hope” by the refugees from Budapest’s Keleti station towards the western border of Hungary, and the closing of the Hungarian-Serbian border with wired fence. The paper discusses the results of the analysis, highlighting the different narratives and their significance in shaping public understanding of the crisis.

Keywords: media, refugee crisis, Hungary, Austria

Kate Coyer, Central European University

Communication Access for Refugees – How Smartphones and Apps Have Helped and Why Wireless Internet Access


Mobile phones have been a vital tool for refugees making the harrowing journey across Europe amidst dangerous conditions and a deeply chaotic environment with conflicting information flows, border closures, and policy changes making an already dangerous journey that much more precarious. As a result, we have witnessed the proliferation of innovative new apps created to support refugees, giving evidence to the critical nature of access to communication in crises environments. At the same time, we have also seen competing narratives by some governments and media outlets misusing the presence of smartphones in the hands of migrants as a misguided justification for limiting refugee support. In this paper, I examine some of the specific ways refugees have been using smartphones and mobile applications to communicate, share knowledge and access vital information like navigation aids and maps, and document their own journeys. I will also give a brief overview of the Keleti Connected grassroots project I initiated in Budapest to provide free wifi and mobile phone charging stations to train stations and borders to meet a pressing need witnessed first-hand, as well as an overview of ongoing efforts to provide tech support and communication access for refugees at boarders across the region.

Keywords: Mobile phones, refugees, humanitiarian toolkit

Sandra Ristovska, University of Pennsylvania/Yale University

Picturing the Refugee Crisis: the Ethics and Politics of Seeing Death


This paper examines how and to what ends the well-known photograph of the 3-year-old Aylan Kurdi who drowned in an unsuccessful attempt to reach the Greek Island of Kos became a global symbol of the Syrian refugee crisis. The image featured prominently in global news on September 2nd, 2015, and since then, it has been repurposed and re-appropriated in performance art works, graphic art and diverse online imagery. Despite immediately attaining its symbolic status, though, the dissemination of the photograph was accompanied by discussions around the ethics of showing and seeing death. Journalists and human rights activists turned to social media to explain their decisions for sharing the original photograph (or any of its subsequent iterations). Meanwhile, countless of other images looking closely at the horrendous experiences of Syrians in their country and on their journeys of exile were either immediately forgotten or never saw the global headlines. As a result, this paper asks: What is the politics behind the pictorial depictions that attain symbolic status? Through the choices to not overwhelm the public with traumatic images that can lead to compassion fatigue or pornography of suffering, what stories do global media highlight? What stories are neglected? To what costs? The paper concludes that news images in their multiple manifestations are crucial to active citizenry, and ethical discussions around depictions of death can sometimes hide troubling political positions vis-à-vis the suffering of others.

Keywords: images, news, refugees, ethics, politics